Copyright

Aldose vs. Ketose Sugars

Aldose vs. Ketose Sugars
Coming up next: Chemical Properties of Carbohydrates

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
 Replay
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:00 A Review of Carbohydrates
  • 1:40 Aldose: Structure and Examples
  • 2:52 Ketose: Structure and Examples
  • 3:47 Differences Between…
  • 4:31 Lesson Summary
Add to Add to Add to

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Log in or Sign up

Timeline
Autoplay
Autoplay
Speed

Recommended Lessons and Courses for You

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Danielle Reid

Danielle has taught middle school science and has a doctorate degree in Environmental Health

Aldose and ketose sugars are carbohydrate molecules distinctly different from one another. In this lesson, you'll learn about these sugars, discovering their unique characteristics and structure.

A Review of Carbohydrates

In the boxing ring to the right we have rough and tumble aldose. And on our left, we have light as a feather ketose! Let the games begin!

Okay, that might be a touch dramatic. Although they may not be battling one another in a boxing ring, there is a match to consider: aldose vs. ketose sugars. Before we dive into the differences between the two, let's review some basic concepts related to both sugar types.

These sugars are referred to as carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are an abundant class of organic compounds that supply energy to our body and are made of sugar units called saccharides. There are two types of carbohydrates: simple and complex. A simple carbohydrate contains only one or two sugar units. Examples of simple sugars include our friends aldose and ketose. Complex carbohydrates contain a polymer of sugar units. That is, these compounds contain long chains of sugar units linked together. Examples of two different sugars are sucrose (i.e. simple carbohydrate) and starch (i.e. complex carbohydrates).

simple vs complex

Going back to sugar units, we can classify these units (based on amount) into three categories: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. For the purpose of this lesson, we will focus on monosaccharides. Aldose and ketose sugars are classified as monosaccharides. By definition, monosaccharides contain one sugar unit. Thus, you can think of a monosaccharide as another term for a simple carbohydrate. What would we then classify aldose and ketose sugars to be? That's right! They are simple carbohydrates, or monosaccharides.

Aldose: Structure and Examples

Aldose is a type of monosaccharide, or simple carbohydrate, that contains an aldehyde in its structure. In organic chemistry, an aldehyde functional group is defined by the presence of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The molecular formula for an aldehyde is RCOH. An R group is any molecule or atom that can bind to the carbonyl atom (CO), forming an aldehyde.

When you look at the term 'aldose,' think of this word as a family name that numerous sugar molecules can identify with. In other words, there are specific examples of aldose sugars. What collectively makes each example part of the aldose family is the presence of an aldehyde in its structure. Examples of these sugars include ribose and glyceraldehyde.

An aldose sugar that has three or more carbon atoms is characterized as possessing stereoisomerism. A stereoisomer is a type of isomer that differs because of spacial orientation as opposed to atom connectivity within the structure. A feature for the structure of aldose is its ability to react and form a cyclic ring. For example, the aldose sugar glucose can react with an acid to form the cyclic aldose sugar glucopyranose.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about Study.com
Try it risk-free for 30 days

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it risk-free for 30 days!
Create An Account
Support