Alexander the Great and the Birth of Hellenism

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: The Library of Alexandria & The Benefits of Hellenization

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:06 Philip of Macedon
  • 2:40 Alexander's Conquest
  • 6:22 Hellenization
  • 8:08 Lesson Summary
Save Save Save

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Log in or Sign up

Speed Speed
Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Max Pfingsten

Max has an MA in Classics, Religion, Philosophy, Behavioral Genetics, a Master of Education, and a BA in Classics, Religion, Philosophy, Evolutionary Psychology.

This lesson describes Alexander the Great's mighty empire. Beginning with a brief account of his father Philip, the lecture then turns to an enumeration of Alexander's conquests. Next, Alexander's methods are explored. Finally, we will discuss Alexander's legacy of Hellenization.

Philip of Macedon

Philip II was the king of Macedonia and father of Alexander
Philip II of Macedon

Meet Alexander the Wee. His father, Philip II of Macedon, was king of Macedonia. Macedonia was a large, relatively empty kingdom to the north of Greece.

For decades Macedonia had been in decline. Yet, Philip was about to change all that. Macedonia had long been under the thumb of the Greeks. During his youth, Philip himself was kept as a hostage by the Greek city of Thebes. After the Peloponnesian war, Greece's main power players, Athens and Sparta, were weakened and exhausted. The time was ripe for Philip to thrust his backwater kingdom into the civilized world. Phillip began by conquering his neighbors, first Thessaly, then Thrace, then Molossia were added to the Macedonian empire.

Yet, things did not go so well in Greece proper. The Athenians and Thebans both still held sway over large territories. As Philip slowly dismantled their empires, they fought back fiercely. The Greeks might be all too willing to kill one another, but when a foreign enemy appeared, they generally united to protect themselves from the invaders.

Yet, Philip was more than just a conqueror. Rather than attempting to invade wholesale, Philip used the wealth of his new empire to begin establishing his own league of allies, forming a Macedonian party. As more and more key city-states joined his cause, Philip was able to pressure the remaining Greek city-states into submission. The end result was the League of Corinth, an alliance that included most of Greece with Philip of Macedon at their head.

The lone holdouts were the warlike Spartans. Philip the Spartan sent an emissary saying, 'You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city.' The Spartans replied with just one word, 'If.' So, Philip decided to leave the Spartans alone.

Nevertheless, rather than having to conquer the Greeks, Philip sought to lead them, and after a brief period of resistance, they fell into line. The Greeks respected Macedon's martial prowess, and the Macedonians respected the cultural and intellectual achievements of the Greeks. With the Macedonians leading the charge, Greek culture was poised to conquer the world.

Map of the Macedonia kingdom
Macedonia Map

Yet, just as everything was looking so grand, Philip was assassinated in a lovers quarrel with his ex-boyfriend, Pausanias. The rule of the empire fell to Philip's son, Alexander.

Alexander's Conquest

So, much has been made of Alexander's greatness that we often forget that Alexander inherited much from his father. Philip left Alexander a wealthy empire around the Aegean Sea. Alexander received the combined power of the Macedonian army and its many allied Greek states. Alexander also received a top notch education from the greatest mind of his time, Aristotle, who returned to the Macedonian court after years spent studying and teaching in Athens. Finally, Alexander had watched his father turn a cultural backwater of a kingdom into the most powerful empire in Europe. With these advantages, Alexander began a lightning campaign of conquest.

Alexander's campaign is noteworthy for its speed, its breadth, its tactics, and its strategy. The same Phalanx formation, which had so frustrated the Persians as they invaded Greece, was now mobilized and brought to the enemy with devastating effectiveness.

First, Asia Minor was ripped from Persian control. Next, the Levant and Syria fell to the Macedonians. Alexander pressed south into Egypt, which welcomed him as a liberator and showered him with gifts. Doubling back, Alexander drove his army through the old kingdoms of the Fertile Crescent. Alexander then pressed on to the heart of the Persian Empire and smashed it to bits, dissolving an empire, which had once been the largest in the world and adding it to his own. Yet, Alexander was not finished. He pressed further east than even the Persians had dared to tread. He invaded modern day Pakistan and subjugated its peoples, and even pressed across the Indus into the Indian subcontinent.

Up until this point, Alexander was undefeated. It was in India, on the banks of the Hyphasis River, that Alexander first tasted defeat - not at the hands of enemies but from his own soldiers. Thousands of miles from home, exhausted and war weary and absolutely terrified of India's war elephants, Alexander's soldiers mutinied, and the progress of the Macedonian war juggernaut ground to a halt. Alexander was forced to turn back and lead his army on the long and dangerous journey home. Yet, no one could say that the campaign had failed. In just over a decade, Alexander had conquered an empire stretching from the Adriatic Sea to the Himalayas. This was, in essence, the entire known world of classical times.

The empire of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great Empire Map

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about
Try it risk-free for 30 days

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it risk-free for 30 days!
Create an account