Back To CourseBusiness Math: Help and Review
11 chapters | 107 lessons
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Wendy has a Ph.D. in Adult Education and a Master's Degree in Business Management. She has 10 years experience working in higher education.
Business statistics is a specialty area of statistics which are applied in the business setting. It can be used for quality assurance, financial analysis, production and operations, and many other business areas. Just as in general statistics, there are two categories: descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the total group of numbers. Inferential statistics infers relationships from the population of numbers.
Descriptive statistics are used to summarize and describe total numbers. Looking at statistical numbers such as mean, or the average number, mode, or the most frequent number, or median, or the middle number, helps managers monitor business activities and make decisions. Often numbers themselves do not show the big picture, so ratios, or numbers representing relationships are used.
Perhaps you're a regional manager who oversees 15 different car dealerships. You will keep track of sales per month, number of vehicles sold, number of salesmen, sales per person, operational costs, delivery times, and other information. You use this statistical information to look at trends, understand relationships between numbers, and make sound business decisions. Perhaps you need to shift a sales member to a different store, or realize that you need more available stock during certain months, all of which helps maximize the company's resources and profit.
Or, perhaps, you're a regional store manager and are concerned about how long customers have to wait to check out. Currently, customers queue in multiple lines with a single cashier. You measure the mean length of time for customers to complete their transaction for a month. Then the next month, you line up customers in a single line with multiple cashiers and measure the mean length of time for the transaction. You notice that even though customers take longer to walk to the next available cashier, the overall transactions are reported faster. When the company expands and builds the next store, you specifically request it to be designed with one queuing line, using your findings to substantiate the request.
Inferential statistics help managers draw conclusions based on limited data. When predicting the future, we don't have a magic crystal ball, but we do have statistical strategies, such as sampling, probability, and models.
Marketing departments often use inferential statistics. A company might issue a survey and ask questions about their products. However, it's impossible to survey every individual customer. The marketing department will determine the appropriate sample size, or the number of people to ask. Based on the results, statisticians can infer the responses are representative of the larger group of customers.
Finance departments use statistical modeling for predicting budgets and capital expenditures, when there are many unknown factors. A statistical model is a representation of what will probably happen. Unfortunately, economists can't predict everything so they use probability. Probability is simply the likelihood of something happening.
For example, let's say a company is taking out a loan for construction of a plant expecting it to be operational in 3 years. They are relying on the income from the plant to repay the loan. The finance team will run a statistical model that will include any possible delays, changes to building regulations, and catastrophic events. It's best to be prepared so it doesn't bankrupt the company if something goes wrong.
Statistical calculations are also used for supply chain and just-in-time inventory delivery. Just-in-time inventory reduces waste by organizing goods delivered as needed, based on accurately forecasted demand. Weather reports, delivery schedules, consumption rates, production rates, time of the year, and other variables contribute to the demand rate. Businesses use statistics to predict demand and reduce inventory costs.
For example, a home goods store will track production and delivery times of snow shovels, as well as the winter weather. Based on statistical trends, they will know the optimal time to place an order to ensure they have snow shovels on hand, when the first snowfalls arrive. They don't want these shovels too early because it costs the company money. This allows the company to maximize profits. Considering winter patterns are different in different areas, they only place orders when it is backed by statistics.
Six Sigma is a term used in business to describe a process that results in no more than 3.4 defects out of a million. Six Sigma programs attempt to improve quality and increase profits by reducing variations in processes. Companies use statistics to calculate defects in their products and monitor and improve manufacturing quality.
For example, a manager may use a control chart, a statistical graph that shows process changes over time. These are used to monitor processes and to predict variances before they happen.
Statistics are applied to business using both descriptive and inferential methods. Descriptive statistics are used to describe a full set of numbers and summarize data. Inferential statistics helps make decisions based on statistical methods including sampling, the number of people to ask, modeling, a representation of what will probably happen, and probability, the likelihood of something happening. This also crosses over into inventory management, which can be accounted for by just-in-time inventory, which reduces waste by organizing goods delivered as needed, based on accurately forecasted demand. Visual aids, such as control charts, statistical graphs that show process changes over time, are used in Six Sigma (which is a term used in business to describe a process that results in no more than 3.4 defects out of a million) programs, which help identify processes over time for quality improvement. Whether you work in marketing, finance, logistics, or operations, statistics is applied to monitor and improve the overall organization.
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Back To CourseBusiness Math: Help and Review
11 chapters | 107 lessons
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