Birches by Robert Frost Lesson Plan

Instructor: Bethany Calderwood

Bethany has taught special education in grades PK-5 and has a master's degree in special education.

This lesson plan uses the poem 'Birches' by Robert Frost to explore the language of the poem as well as the themes of the poem. The lesson plan includes individual and group work as well as a writing assignment.

Learning Objectives

As a result of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • define blank verse and recognize iambic pentameter.
  • identify possible themes of the poem ''Birches'' by Robert Frost.


  • 1 hour

Curriculum Standards


Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.


Analyze how a drama's or poem's form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning


  • alliteration
  • blank verse
  • iambic pentameter/iamb
  • theme
  • metaphor


  • a copy of the poem ''Birches'' by Robert Frost for each student, double spaced (so there is space between the lines)
  • colored pencils or pens

Lesson Instructions/Activity

  • Distribute the poem ''Birches'' by Robert Frost. Ask students to read the poem through once silently.
  • Poetry has a different impact when read aloud. Read the beginning of the poem aloud, then ask for volunteers to read several lines each until the entire poem has been read aloud.

Exploring the Language of the Poem

  • Play video lesson Birches by Robert Frost: Analysis & Overview, pausing at 1:20.
  • Explain iambic pentameter. Show students how to mark iambic pentameter using the first couple lines of the poem. Then, ask students to mark the iambic pentameter in the next several lines of their poems.
  • A couple of students can put marked lines on the board to demonstrate understanding
  • Note that iambic pentameter is only a form for a poem. The choice of words gives blank verse its full effect. Talk about how the use of precise words carries more impact than general language - Frost says the crystal shells ''shatter and avalanche'' rather than that they break. Mention also the use of repeated sounds and alliteration.
  • Have students go through the poem again, this time using colored pencils to underline repeated sounds and alliteration in one color, and use a second color to underline words that stand out to them - interesting or precise language that gives the poem more impact.
  • Discussion questions after this activity:
  1. How does the use of blank verse affect the tone of this poem?
  2. Where does Frost use alliteration and repeated sounds and how does it enhance your experience of the poem?
  3. What specific words in the poem did you find to be powerful and interesting, and why?

Exploring the Theme of the Poem

  • Resume video lesson Birches by Robert Frost: Analysis & Overview at 1:21 and play to the end of the lesson.
  • This lesson suggests that the theme of the poem ''Birches'' is the tension between imagination and reality.
  • In small groups, students go through the poem and find phrases and lines that talk about imagination, and phrases and lines that talk about reality.
  • Small groups share their findings with the whole class.
  • Check students for understanding using this quiz or worksheet.
  • Discussion questions:
  1. What should be the balance between imagination and reality for a healthy person?
  2. Do you ever experience this tension between imagination and reality?
  3. Are there other possible themes in the poem ''Birches''?

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about
Try it risk-free for 30 days

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it risk-free for 30 days!
Create an account