Brazil Lesson for Kids: History & Facts

Instructor: Jennifer Lowery

Jennifer has taught elementary levels K-3 and has master's degrees in elementary education and curriculum/instruction and educational leadership.

Brazil is the largest country in South America. In this lesson, explore the history and geography of the country that is famous for its rainforests and Carnival celebrations!

Off to Brazil!

Imagine a country that has thick jungles and rainforests, amazing wild animals, and a huge party once a year! No, it's not a dream, it's Brazil!

Brazil is the largest country located on the continent of South America, and its capital city is Brasilia. Other large famous cities include Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Many South American countries border Brazil, including Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru. One of the world's most beautiful waterfalls, Iguazu Falls, can be located at the border of Brazil and Argentina.

Iguazu Falls are created by the Iguazu River and are found on the border of Argentina and Brazil.
Iguazu Falls in Brazil

Brazilian History

The earliest civilizations in Brazil emerged around 9,000 BCE Thousands of years later, in 1500 AD, explorers landed in Brazil and claimed the land in the name of Portugal.

Explorers loved Brazil for good reason. Coffee grows easily in Brazil and gold was discovered there! In 1822, an independent empire was created and this lasted until 1889. Brazil is now a republic with an elected president.

Rainforests and Wildlife

Brazil has lots of different kinds of land, including mountain ranges along the Brazilian highlands and coastal areas with low-lying swamps and lagoons. However, one of the most famous areas in Brazil is located in the northern part of the country.

In the north, one of the largest parts of the Amazon rainforest can be found. This area has millions of species of plants and animals, many that cannot be found anywhere else on Earth.

The Gold Tegu lizard is one of millions of animal species that live in the Brazilian rainforest.
Brazilian wildlife

Sadly, much of the rainforest was destroyed when developers cleared the land to gather wood and create farmland. People got quite upset over the destruction and in the 1990s, the Brazilian government began creating laws to protect the rainforest.


One of the biggest celebrations in the world happens in Brazil every year! Carnival is a four-day party that happens before the Christian observation of Lent, which is a serious time that Christians spend in preparation for Easter. The celebration of Carnival is a chance to let loose before the praying begins.

Colorful costumes, parade floats and decorations are created each year in Brazil for Carnival.
Parade for Carnival

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