Canada Lesson for Kids: History & Facts

Instructor: Debra Patuto

Debra has taught at elementary levels and has an M.ed with certification in elementary education and special education

In this lesson you will learn about the country of Canada. We'll learn about the history of Canada and the structure of its government. We will even explore the geography, climate, wildlife and the many natural resources that Canada has to offer.

Think Cold

Think about a time when you were cold. Maybe you were outside playing in the snow or walking to school on a cold day. Now, think even colder. Canada is a country where temperatures in the wintertime can dip well below 0 degrees Fahrenheit. Yikes!

The lowest recorded temperature to date was in 1947 at -81.4 below 0. Brrr! Now that is cold!

Where Is Canada?

Canada sits on top of the United States of America on the continent of North America, where there is a 5,525 mile boarder dividing the two countries. It is the second largest country in the world and has the largest coastline in the world, where land meets water.

Canada is broken up into 10 provinces and three territories with the nation's capital city, Ottawa, located in the province of Ontario.

This map shows the provinces and territories of Canada.
Provinces and Territories


15,000-30,000 years ago, the first people to come to North America came across Asia. They crossed a narrow bridge-like piece of land and explored the northwestern parts of North America. Years later, the Vikings sailed to the eastern parts of North America and explored what is now Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New Brunswick.

Some important explorers to remember are John Cabot, who claimed the east coast of Canada as British territory, and Jaques Cartier, who claimed land that is now Quebec as French territory. In 1762, after years of fighting, the French gave their Canadian territory to the British and England had full control of Canada.

In 1931, Canada became an independent nation.

Canadian Flag
Canadian Flag


There are three levels to the government within Canada.

There is the federal government that oversees the entire country of Canada and is led by a Prime Minister and Governor General. The Queen of England still must give her final approval when things, such as new laws, are passed for the entire country.

Each of the 10 provinces has their own government that handles issues such as education and healthcare.

Each city within a province has their own municipal government that handles decisions having to do with things such as schools and snow removal.


In general, Canada is known to have long, cold winters and warm, but very short, summers. Canada is so large that the climates can be different across the land.

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