Copyright

Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Properties of Water

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
 Replay
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:00 Bonding
  • 0:27 Intramolecular Forces
  • 1:46 Intermolecular Forces
  • 2:23 What Are Hydrogen Bonds?
  • 5:11 Daily Example
  • 5:35 Lesson Summary
Add to Add to Add to

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Login or Sign up

Timeline
Autoplay
Autoplay
Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account

Recommended Lessons and Courses for You

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Artem Cheprasov
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.

Bonding

Man, is chemistry confusing or what? We can bond over that one fact, can't we? And one of the most confusing concepts in chemistry is bonding. In this lesson, you're going to learn about bonds; specifically, a bit about hydrogen bonding. But, this lesson will hopefully make hydrogen bonding very clear to you with a little help from Agent Bond - Adam Bond.

Intramolecular Forces

Before we can understand what a hydrogen bond is, we have to understand two concepts: intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces. First, let's look at intramolecular forces. Say Adam is in a room with two spies; each person represents a single atom and each person's arms represents a bond, which, for this lesson's sake, we can simply state, is an attraction, or attractive force, between atoms. If Adam reaches out with his left arm and grabs hold of one of the spies and then reaches out with his right arm and grabs the other spy, we now have a three atom molecule. A molecule simply put, is two or more atoms joined together via bonds.

Our three atom molecule is held together by Adam's arms, the bonds. When bonds occur inside molecules like this, we sometimes use the term intramolecular forces to refer to these internal bonds. Note the 'intra' in intramolecular. 'Intra' means, 'within something,' so intramolecular forces are the bonds holding a molecule together. These types of bonds occur via the sharing of electrons between atoms thanks to something known as covalent bonding. Covalent bonds are chemical bonds, or attractive forces, that arise thanks to the sharing of a pair of electrons between atoms.

Intermolecular Forces

Okay, that was easy, right? Now, imagine Adam and the two spies he has a hold of sticking to another group of three people, held together in a similar arrangement; in other words, two molecules are attracted to one another. These molecules are attracted to one another thanks to intermolecular forces, which are forces of attraction that occur between molecules. It is these forces that allow for the formation of liquids, like water, and solids. Note the 'inter,' in intermolecular. 'Inter' means between something - between molecules in this case. Don't get confused with 'intra,' which, again, refers to within something. With that little reminder out of the way, you are now ready to understand what a hydrogen bond is and isn't.

What Are Hydrogen Bonds?

A hydrogen bond is an intermolecular force between a hydrogen atom in one polar molecule and a small and very electronegative atom of another polar molecule. That's the simple definition. There is more to it. First, a hydrogen bond is an attraction/force/bond between two molecules. Second, it occurs between a hydrogen atom of one molecule and a very small and electronegative atom of another molecule.

Electronegativity can be simply phrased as the ability of an atom to attract electrons. The higher the electronegativity of an atom, the more strongly it will attract electrons. These very small and highly electronegative atoms are notably non-metals, like oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and fluorine (F). In other words, hydrogen will form a bond with either an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom of another molecule in a hydrogen bond.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Register for a free trial

Are you a student or a teacher?
I am a teacher

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account
Support