Jennifer has taught elementary levels K-3 and has master's degrees in elementary education and curriculum/instruction and educational leadership.
Let's travel to an area known as the Crimean Peninsula, a piece of land nearly surrounded by the Black Sea. This was the site of the Crimean War, fought between 1853 and 1856. It involved several different countries and groups of people. Let's find out more about this war and how it happened.
To understand this war, it is important to learn about the Ottomans. These people were mostly Muslim, which means they practiced the religion of Islam. They conquered the Byzantine capital city of Constantinople in 1453 and created a vast empire that included areas of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
In the 1800s, Russia wanted to expand their territory. The emperor of Russia, Nicholas I, demanded that members of the Orthodox church (the Ottomans) be placed under the protection of Russia. This might have appeared to be a nice thing for the Russians to do, but it was really a way to expand the Russian Empire. The Ottomans were not happy with this idea, and neither was the emperor of France.
War is Declared
With no compromise in sight, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October of 1853. They felt that this was a holy war necessary to protect their religion from the Russians. The Ottomans had the support of Britain, France, and the country of Sardinia. Can you guess why? Remember, they did not want the Russian Empire to overtake areas of the Ottoman Empire. After a few months of fighting, British and French ships entered the Black Sea. In March of the following year, both countries declared war on Russia. The combined forces of the Ottomans, British, and French were known as the allied powers.
Casualties from Disease
Normally, you would think that battles in wars present the biggest danger for soldiers. However, disease was just as deadly in the Crimean War. Conditions were terrible on the battlefields, and this prompted British nurse Florence Nightingale to attend to the wounded. Her efforts during the Crimean War changed the way medical help was given to soldiers in battle.
Siege and Austria
The allied forces launched a siege attack against the Russians that lasted nearly a year. This was damaging to the Russians, but they were also worried about the country of Austria. The Russians had invaded areas that were controlled by Austria, and the Austrians were not too happy with this. Since the Russians did not want any other countries fighting against them, they agreed to leave the Austrian controlled areas. Still, when Austria threatened to join up with the allied powers, this was too much for the Russians. They decided to end the war.
War is Over
After the battles were over, the Crimean War officially ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1856. This was an agreement that had several compromises. One of the most significant resolutions had to do with the Black Sea. Once a site for many battles, it was now declared a neutral area. This meant that it could be safely used for peaceful trade between different countries. Russia also had to remove their troops from Ottoman areas and give back control to them.
The Crimean War occurred because of disputes over the Holy Land and control of the Ottoman lands. Russia wanted to expand its empire, and the Ottomans declared war on the Russians. Britain and France joined the Ottomans to create the allied powers, and after a long siege where the Russians were defeated, the Treaty of Paris in 1856 ended the Crimean War.
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