Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: John Simmons

John has taught college science courses face-to-face and online since 1994 and has a doctorate in physiology.

The crystal habit, or the external shape of a crystal, can be used to help identify minerals. Discover the different types of crystals, including euhedral and non-geometric, and their different habit forms. Updated: 09/18/2021

Crystals

Crystals have amazed us throughout history. For example, the crystal structure of a diamond reflects light in such a way to mesmerize even the harshest critic. But what is a crystal? The term crystal is used to convey different meanings at the microscopic or macroscopic level.

At the microscopic level, a crystal is a solid formed by regularly-repeating patterns of molecules that are connected together. Now, not all solids are crystals. In a non-crystal solid, the arrangement of the molecules is random throughout the material; it's not regular. Still, at the microscopic level, the crystal is characterized by the unit cell, which is a collection of molecules repeated in exactly the same arrangement throughout the entire material.

At the macroscopic level, geologists use the term crystal shape, or crystal habit, to refer to the visible external shape of a sample of a material. The shape or habit results from the common or characteristic shape of either a single crystal or aggregate of crystals. In this lesson, we will discuss two general types of crystal habits. The first exists as regular polygons and are thus termed euhedral, where 'eu' means true. The second type doesn't exist in regular geometric forms.

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  • 0:06 Crystals
  • 1:42 Euhedral Crystals
  • 3:05 Non-Geometrical Crystals
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Euhedral Crystals

Let's look first at the euhedral crystals. Euhedral crystals have flat surfaces, or facets, with sharp angles. This is rare in nature, as most crystals don't form with sharp edges and smooth flat facets.

For example, diamonds have an octahedral habit as they have eight facets, 'octa' meaning eight. Magnetite is another mineral with an octahedral habit. As the name suggests, this mineral is magnetic. Ancient humans discovered the property of magnetism through this mineral.

Garnets are most commonly dodecahedrons as they are 12-sided. Many gemstones are garnet minerals and some are quite valuable rubies. Some minerals form a cubic, or a cube-shaped habit, such as halite, galena, and pyrite. Halite is nothing more than common rock salt, galena is the natural mineral form of lead, and pyrite, or iron pyrite, is also known as fool's gold, as it has a shiny metallic luster much like gold.

It is important to note that while most minerals have one common crystal habit or crystal shape, some can form different habits depending on the conditions in which they are formed.

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