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Different Types of Castles: Lesson for Kids

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  • 0:04 Castles in the Middle Ages
  • 0:31 Types of Castles
  • 2:16 Lesson Summary
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Instructor: Andrea Miller

Andrea is currently a social studies middle school teacher in Ohio. She has a BA in history as well as a MEd in education. She has taught workshops including OGT Success and Writing for Life. Andrea has also been a middle school debate team coach for several years.

A castle was a type of massive, protective home designed to ensure the safety of its occupants. In this lesson, you'll learn about the three major styles of castles created during the Middle Ages in Europe.

Castles in the Middle Ages

Imagine you owned a large amount of land people were always trying to take from you. Also, imagine that you had no alarm systems, fancy locks, or security fences to protect your family, land, and possessions. During the Middle Ages in Europe, which lasted roughly from the 400s to the 1400s, having the best castle possible was a very important part of a landowner's life. Your castle would act as your number one line of defense against any enemy coming onto your land.

Types of Castles

There were three major types of castle styles used in the Middle Ages: motte-and-bailey, stone keep, and concentric castles. Some of the first styles to become popular throughout Europe were the motte-and-bailey castles, which we'll discuss next.

A motte-and-bailey castle was very basic and consisted of two parts: a lookout tower and a place for people to live. The first part (the motte) was the lookout tower on top of a high hill. The lookout would be positioned up high so that soldiers could see people coming from far away. The second part of the castle was the bailey, which was the area where the family lived. The bailey was on the level ground behind the hill and surrounded by a tall wooden fence. Typically, a motte-and-bailey castle would also be surrounded by a moat, or a shallow, man-made waterway that circled the dwelling and made it harder for outsiders to enter the area.

As time went on, castle styles continued to develop to provide more protection for the families living within their walls. A stone keep castle was built of rocks, which made it harder to burn or attack with flying boulders from catapults. In contrast to the two disjointed parts of the motte-and-bailey castle, it was completely enclosed behind a high stone wall. A stone wall castle usually had turrets, or lookout towers, built into it and a surrounding moat.

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