Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, published in 1886 by Robert Louis Stevenson, is about a man who transforms between two personae: Dr. Henry Jekyll and Mr. Edward Hyde. It is an example of the Gothic genre.
Gothic stories typically blend elements from horror stories with elements from Romantic stories. The persona-changing potions, murders, and eventual suicide in the novel are all examples of the horror elements at work in the text. The Romantic element in the novel comes across in the theme of science versus nature, since Romantic works often are seen as a rebellion against science's rationalization of nature. Gothic novels often explore the human psyche and supernatural phenomena, too.
The phrase 'Jekyll and Hyde' is sometimes used colloquially to refer to someone whose actions cannot be reconciled with each other.
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde focuses on John Utterson, a lawyer and friend of Dr. Jekyll. The novel begins with John Utterson talking with his other friend, who has just witnessed an odd situation. A man identified as Edward Hyde ran over a girl, only to pay off her family later with a check from Dr. Jekyll. The situation is made even stranger because Jekyll's will has recently been changed. Mr. Hyde now stands to inherit everything.
John, believing that the two men are separate people, thinks that the cruel Mr. Hyde is somehow blackmailing Dr. Jekyll. John questions Dr. Jekyll about Hyde, but Jekyll tells him to mind his own business. Unfortunately, John cannot do that.
A year later, Mr. Hyde attacks someone else: he beats a man with a cane, resulting in the man's death. The police involve John because he knew the victim. John takes them to Mr. Hyde's apartment, where they find the murder weapon, which is a gift that John himself gave to Dr. Jekyll. John questions Dr. Jekyll about Mr. Hyde again, but Jekyll insists that Mr. Hyde has run away. He shows John a goodbye note from Mr. Hyde, but the handwriting is suspiciously similar to Dr. Jekyll's.
For a while, things seem to improve. Mr. Hyde does not reappear, and Dr. Jekyll seems happier. But then one of John's friends dies suddenly. Before he dies, however, the friend gives John a letter. He says it should only be opened if Dr. Jekyll either dies or disappears.
Dr. Jekyll starts acting even weirder and shuts himself up inside his laboratory. Eventually, his butler and John break into the laboratory, concerned because the voice they heard inside is not the doctor's. Once inside, they find Mr. Hyde dressed in Dr. Jekyll's clothes and dead. He has committed suicide. Next to his body is a letter.
After he goes home again, John reads both letters now in his possession. They reveal the truth about what has been happening. The letter written by his friend who died explains that Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are the same person and that they transform back and forth via potions. The second letter, written by Dr. Jekyll, explains the purpose of the transformation: Dr. Jekyll wanted to separate his good side and his bad side. He thought he could control it with the potions, but eventually the transformations got out of control and he would transform involuntarily without the aid of the potions.
Dr. Jekyll tried several things to stop the transformations, but nothing worked. He knew he would turn into Hyde permanently. The letter was his last conscious act as Dr. Jekyll. Since Mr. Hyde is dead, it can be assumed that, unwilling to face the consequences of his violent actions, Mr. Hyde decided to kill himself first.