What Is Disgust?
Imagine you've returned home from a week-long vacation in Hawaii to find that your refrigerator has malfunctioned. You open the fridge door and recoil when you are hit with the repulsive odor of rotten meats, cheeses and vegetables. This is disgust - the feeling of intense displeasure or revulsion in response to an offensive or revolting object, person or behavior. It is considered one of the six basic human emotions and is found among all cultures.
Causes and Characteristics of Disgust
We already know that revolting or offensive things elicit disgust; however, there are more complex factors to this powerful emotion. English naturalist Charles Darwin conducted some of the earliest research into disgust and its elicitors. In his book, The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, he narrates a revealing encounter with this powerful emotion. While on a trip to Tierra del Fuego, Darwin was eating some cold preserved meat when a native man touched his food. The native man expressed disgust at the food's texture, while Darwin felt disgust that a naked savage had touched his food. He realized some key characteristics about disgust: that it is a cross-cultural emotion, that it can be caused by different things and that what is considered disgusting can vary by culture.
While culture has a great effect on what provokes disgust, there are select things that tend to elicit this emotion among all cultures. Review the list below for some of these common, cross-cultural disgust elicitors:
- Bodily fluids and excretions (like feces, urine, pus and vomit)
- Spoiled foods
- Poor hygiene
- Bodily violations (like blood and mutilation)
- Death and corpses
- Animals and insects (like cockroaches, worms and rats)
How We Display Disgust
After stumbling across the characteristics of disgust, Darwin then went on to study the physical reactions involved in the emotion. He found that people who are only mildly disgusted may only frown and use their hands or bodies to push the disgusting object away. More severe disgust may cause one to drop his or her mouth open, purse the lips, spit and verbalize the emotion with a sound of disgust (i.e., 'ach' or 'eew'). In extreme cases, people may display an open mouth, wrinkled nose and contorted face, as though they are going to vomit. Some may actually vomit.
Disgust and Survival
The human survival explanation for disgust is a fairly logical one - for evolutionary purposes, humans should avoid things that can infect or hurt our bodies, and so we develop intense aversions to those harmful things so that we automatically recoil or shield ourselves from them. It's believed that the emotion of disgust has evolved in response to rotten or toxic foods that harm humans; our bodies have learned to shun disease-carrying pathogens to save our immune systems from having to fight them off or to save ourselves from death. In fact, you may have noticed that the items on the list of cross-cultural disgust elicitors, above all, have the potential to spread disease or cause illness or infection.
Disgust and Aggression
Disgust and aggression have an interesting relationship. Research has shown that increased disgust correlates with decreased aggression. For example, if you're walking down the street and someone punches you in the arm, your first response might be aggression - you might want to confront the person; however, if the person who punches you has leaky sores all over his face, you're more likely to withdraw from that person than engage in a confrontation. Additionally, research reveals that people who are more sensitive to the disgust emotion are less likely to be aggressive in character.
One of the six basic emotions, disgust is a reaction of intense displeasure or revulsion to something that is too revolting or offensive. While some things, like rotten food and poor hygiene, are generally considered universally disgusting, other elicitors of this emotion are determined by cultural factors. It's believed that disgust has developed for evolutionary purposes in order to protect us from disease, illness and infection.
Following this lesson, you should have the ability to:
- Describe disgust and how people exhibit this emotion
- Explain Charles Darwin's research into disgust
- Recall how disgust is influenced by culture
- Identify cross-cultural disgust elicitors
- Summarize the development of disgust as a survival mechanism and disgust's relationship to aggression
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