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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development: Theory & Examples

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  • 1:03 Oral-Sensory Stage
  • 1:29 Muscular-Anal Stage
  • 1:58 Locomotor & Latency Stages
  • 2:53 Adolescence & Young Adulthood
  • 3:50 Middle & Late Adulthood
  • 4:28 Conclusion
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor
Paul Bautista
Expert Contributor
Jennifer Levitas

Jennifer has a Ph.D. in Psychology. She's taught multiple college-level psychology courses and been published in several academic journals.

How do we form identities as we age and grow? To answer this question, Erik Erikson came up with eight stages of identity formation that revolve around conflict and resolution. Who are you, and who will you become after completing this lesson?

Forming Psychological Identities

How do we develop an identity, or a sense of self? Psychologists have many theories. One, named Erik Erikson, believed that we work on constructing psychosocial identities throughout our whole lives. By 'psychosocial,' he meant an interplay between our inner, emotional lives (psycho), and our outer, social circumstances (social).

Erikson believed that as we grow and age, we pass through eight stages of development. He thought that each stage was defined by a specific conflict between a pair of opposing impulses or behaviors. The resolution (or inability to resolve) these conflicts affects our personalities and identities.

Psychosocial refers to an interplay between our emotional lives and our social circumstances
Ericksons Psychosocial Identities

Erikson defines four childhood stages and three adult stages, bridged together by one stage of adolescence. We'll go through each stage and define it by its central conflict, as well we give some examples of behaviors and patterns of thinking characteristic of the stage.

Oral-Sensory Stage

The first is the oral-sensory stage, encompassing the first year of life and defined by a conflict between trust and mistrust. Infants during this time learn to trust their parents if they're reliably cared for and fed; if not, if they're neglected or abused, they'll develop mistrust instead. Infants at this stage either learn that they can trust others to fulfill their needs, or that they can't, that the world is a dangerous and unreliable place.

Muscular-Anal Stage

The second stage is called muscular-anal and defined by the conflict between autonomy and shame and doubt. Parents who allow their toddlers, between the ages of about 1-3, to explore their surroundings and develop interests of their own help to foster a sense of autonomy. But parents who are too restrictive or cautious with their children can instead leave them with doubt about their abilities. Like learning mistrust instead of trust, this can have longstanding consequences.

Locomotor Stage

A related conflict between initiative and guilt defines the next stage, the locomotor stage. Children in this stage, between the ages of three and six, need to develop initiative, or independent decision-making, about planning and doing various activities. If they are not encouraged to do this, or if their efforts are dismissed, they may learn to feel guilt instead about their desire for independence.

Latency

The last childhood stage is called latency and is defined by a conflict between industry and inferiority. Children in this stage are between the ages of six and twelve, and during this time are starting to gain real adult skills like reading, writing and logic. If they're encouraged, they'll develop industry, or motivation to keep learning and practicing; they'll start to want to be productive instead of just wanting to play. Children who aren't encouraged to work hard at learning new skills will instead feel inferior and unmotivated.

Adolescence

Adolescents are primarily concerned with finding a personal identity
Adolescence Stage of Psychosocial Development

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Additional Activities

Psychosocial Development Activities

Writing Prompt 1:

As you learned in the lesson, identity is the primary psychosocial developmental task in adolescence. Identity has many facets—political identity, sexual identity, religious identity, personal identity, and so on. Choose one type of identity that resonates with you and reflect on how it developed in your adolescent years. How did you develop that identity? Did you ''try on'' different identities before deciding on that one? Did your parents significantly influence your identity? Did any significant events happen to help you choose that identity? Write a journal entry consisting of 2-3 paragraphs writing down your thoughts on how your identity developed.

Writing Prompt 2:

For this activity, say you are an elementary school teacher. You understand that the children in your class are experiencing a psychosocial conflict between industry and inferiority. Your desire as their teacher is to help them traverse and exit the stage strongly on the side of industry. Develop a rough lesson plan, writing down five points or ideas for activities that you think would aid in helping them develop industry. For example, you may ask the children to each choose a topic of interest on which to do a project, then have them present the project to the class. In so doing, they will develop a sense of industriousness and proficiency.

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