Michelle has been treated for depression by her psychologist, Dr. Casanova, for three months. She begins to develop romantic feelings for him and wonders if he has reciprocating feelings. Dr. Casanova starts scheduling her appointments later in the evening and for longer periods of time. After some mutual flirting, Michelle declares her feelings to Dr. Casanova and he shares that he feels the same. A sexual encounter, a whirlwind romance, and a quick, painful break-up ensues. Michelle is left confused, devastated, and betrayed.
The above scenario is a good example of why ethical codes of conduct exist and the damage that can occur when the codes are violated. This lesson will help explain what ethical codes of conduct are, why they were developed, and describe their important components.
Ethical codes of conduct contain general principles and ethical standards of conduct that guide the behavior of a licensed health care professional. These codes vary across disciplines and state licensing bodies. For example, ethical codes of conduct may differ for a psychologist and a physician, or for a psychologist practicing in Ohio versus Virginia.
Ethical codes of conduct were developed to protect students, patients, and research participants from harm by a licensed provider. These individuals are at increased risk of harm due to the power differential between the provider (more power) and the patient (significantly less power).
In the example above, Dr. Casanova is in an ideal position to exploit Michelle for many reasons. He has considerable information about the most intimate details of her life. She, being the patient, likely has very little information about him. Also, as Dr. Casanova is the treatment provider, he is deemed as having expertise and knowledge. In comparison, Michelle is a vulnerable patient, likely in emotional pain and hoping for treatment. Due to this power differential, Dr. Casanova has to take great care to not take advantage of Michelle for his own personal gain. However, in this situation, it is clear he violated both her trust and his licensing board's ethical code of conduct.
All ethical codes of conduct contain general principles of behavior. The general principles are guidelines that professionals should aspire to meet. The guidelines are not laws that are enforceable, but rather ideal standards that professionals should aspire to uphold. Good examples of general principles include those listed by the American Psychological Association:
- Beneficence and non-maleficence: help others and do no harm.
- Fidelity and responsibility: be trustworthy. Uphold professional standards. Take responsibility for one's own actions.
- Integrity: be honest and truthful.
- Justice: be fair and aware of one's own biases and limitations.
- Respect for people's rights and dignity: respect the worth and dignity of others and their ability to make health decisions.
Ethical Standards of Conduct
All ethical codes of conduct also contain explicit ethical standards of conduct. The ethical standards of conduct are the rules of expected conduct that can be enforced by state licensing boards. Violating these ethical standards of conduct can result in legal consequences such as mandated supervision, suspension of the license to practice, and/or permanent revocation of one's license. Ethical standards, such as those found in the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, often cover the following areas:
Resolving ethical issues
Attempt to resolve ethical issues by self-correction or by bringing it to the attention of the professional who is violating the standard. Unresolved issues must be reported to the licensing board.
Example violation: Dr. Cathem reports to the licensing board that his colleague is practicing without a license.
Don't deliver treatments you aren't trained to administer.
Example violation: Dr. Noitall is providing a new treatment for ADHD in children that he read about in a magazine.
Don't have sexual relationships with current or past patients, and don't have multiple relationships with current or past patients.
Example violation: Dr. Cheep treats Judy for depression and hires her to babysit.
Privacy and confidentiality
Don't disclose patient information without written permission.
Example violation: Dr. Loozlips tells his friends at a cafe that Frank's wife had an affair without permission.
Advertising and other public statements
Don't falsely represent oneself, and don't solicit testimonials from patients.
Example violation: Dr. Phalse asks his patient to write him a recommendation on LinkedIn.
Record keeping and fees
Keep patient records in a secure location for a specified period of time. Establish the fees for services early in the treatment process.
Example violation: Dr. Careliss leaves his patient files on his dining room table.
Education and training
Ensure education programs provide appropriate experiences and accurate knowledge. Provide evaluation and feedback to trainees.
Example violation: Terry never receives an evaluation on her therapy skills and her patients aren't getting better.
Research and publication
Inform research participants about the purpose and scope of a research study. Don't deceive research participants. Humanely care for research animals.
Example violation: Dr. Batenswitch initially tells research participants that she will be recording their emotions while they eat pleasurable foods, but then she feeds them rotten eggs instead.
Assessment and therapy
Complete thorough and accurate assessments. Let patients know what to expect with assessments and therapy. End therapy as appropriate with referrals as needed.
Example violation: Dr. A. Bandon decides during a session to stop treating Charlie because she doesn't like him. She tells him mid-session and doesn't offer anyone else that he might see instead.
Ethical codes of conduct vary across disciplines and licensing boards, but in general are aspirational guidelines and enforceable standards for professional behavior. General principles suggest ideals to guide professionals in their actions. Ethical standards of conduct are laws enforced by state licensing boards with legal consequences if violated. Ethical codes of conduct are in place to prevent harm to patients or other vulnerable persons treated by licensed health care providers.
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Prompts About Ethical Code of Conduct:
Essay Prompt 1:
In one to two paragraphs, write an essay that defines ethical codes of conduct and explains what they are comprised of—general principles and ethical standards. Be sure to describe the difference between general principles and ethical standards.
Example: Begin your essay by noting that the ethical codes of conduct are intended to regulate the behavior of health care providers.
Essay Prompt 2:
Write an essay of at least three to four paragraphs that explains the role of ethical codes of conduct in regulating power differentials.
Example: The human relations standard of conduct helps prevent patients from being taken advantage of by the health care provider, who has greater power.
Graphic Organizer Prompt:
Create a poster, chart, or other type of graphic organizer that spells out the general principles listed by the American Psychological Association.
Example: For justice, you could draw or provide a picture of the scales of justice.
Make a brochure that lists the dos and don'ts of ethical standards of conduct. You could use illustrations and words, or just words. List a do and a don't for each standard.
Example: For record-keeping and fees, a do could be to store patient records in a secure area. A don't could be to not store patient records in your unlocked car.
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