Extraembryonic Membranes in Humans

Extraembryonic Membranes in Humans
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  • 0:01 Extraembryonic Membranes
  • 1:09 Amnion
  • 1:42 Yolk Sac
  • 2:52 Allantois
  • 3:30 Chorion
  • 4:02 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Amanda Robb
This lesson explores extraembryonic membranes in humans. We'll discuss some basics of embryo anatomy, define extraembryonic membranes and their types, and look at the function of each type in detail.

What Are Extraembryonic Membranes?

When you're making eggs for breakfast, you're probably not thinking about how an egg is one of the largest cells on Earth. That's right, the chicken egg is a single cell, just like the tiny cells in our bodies! The chicken egg you made for breakfast wasn't fertilized, though. If the chicken had mated with a rooster before laying the egg, an embryo would have grown inside the egg.

The layers inside the egg around the embryo are called extraembryonic membranes, and they nourish and protect the embryo. The yolk that we eat is actually a food source for the embryo growing inside the egg, which is why it's so rich in calories.

Although humans might look quite different from chickens, we share a common ancestor from millions of years ago. And as it turns out, our embryonic development parallels that of the chicken: Humans and chickens have similar extraembryonic membranes! Mammals and birds (and even reptiles) produce four different kinds of extraembryonic membranes to protect the embryo: amnion, yolk sac, allantois, and chorion. Let's explore these in detail.

Amnion

The amnion is the innermost membrane of the embryo. It surrounds the embryo, creating a fluid-filled cavity. The amniotic fluid inside protects the embryo from mechanical stress and impact.

Think of the amnion as the packing material inside a package. If you were to ship a fancy wine glass to your friend, the bubble wrap would prevent it from slamming around and breaking. The amnion has the same function, and as the embryo grows, the amnion grows with it. This enlarges the amniotic cavity, allowing for growth and movement of the fetus later in pregnancy.

Yolk Sac

In birds, reptiles, and egg-laying mammals, the yolk sac is a structure that develops on the ventral side (or belly side) of the embryo, providing nutrition for the growing embryo inside the egg. The gooey, yellow inside of sunnyside-up eggs are actually the yolk sacs. As we mentioned earlier, they provide food for the chick embryos. However, in humans, the yolk sac no longer serves a nutritional purpose. Food is provided directly from the mother through the placenta, an organ outside the extraembryonic membranes that provides nutrients and removes waste for the embryo.

Instead, the human yolk sac contributes cells that will become blood, sperm, and egg cells in the fetus. During development, the yolk sac moves away from the embryo, morphing into a yolk stalk with the yolk sac appearing as a ball at the end. As cells migrate from the yolk sac up the yolk stalk to the embryo, the stalk eventually pulls away entirely and is no longer present in the fetal stage of development. So instead of providing food as in other animals, the yolk provides cells that actually become part of the fetus later in development.

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