Yolanda has taught college Psychology and Ethics, and has a doctorate of philosophy in counselor education and supervision.
John and Suzie are a married couple living in Washington, DC. John is an established attorney, while Suzie has just joined a medical practice as a pediatrician. John and Suzie have two children. Though they would like to have more, they have both decided that it's in the best interest of the family to not have any additional children. John is trying to make partner at his law firm, and Suzie is still trying to establish her clientele at her medical practice. They are also both over 35, and any additional pregnancies would be considered high risk.
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Fertility refers to the natural capacity to produce offspring. Fertility as a measure, known as the fertility rate, refers to the amount of children that an average woman gives birth to during her childbearing years. Europe has the lowest fertility rate in the world, with about 1.6 births per woman, while Niger has the highest fertility rate in the world, with nearly 7 births per woman. In the United States, the fertility rate is approximately 1.8 births per woman as of 2018.
Fertility depends on several factors. Nutrition can affect the ability to reproduce. Our culture and lifestyle can also influence the ability to reproduce. The fertility rate among industrialized and developed societies tends to be less than that of less developed, agricultural societies. Countries that have citizens who have higher levels of education and incomes generally have lower fertility rates as well. This is attributed to the adoption of behaviors that limit fertility, such as induced abortions, increased use of contraception, and limited sexual relations. For example, John and Suzie are both focused on improving their careers, so they decided to not have more children. They are also both highly educated and have careers that pay well. Biology also played a role in John and Suzie's decision as they were both getting older and neither wanted to deal with the issues associated with high risk pregnancies.
Fecundity refers to the potential number of children that an average woman is able to give birth to. In other words, fertility is the actual output of reproduction, while fecundity is the potential output. The average fertility rate in the world is approximately 2.5 children per woman; however, the fecundity rate is estimated to be around 20 children per woman.
Fecundity is influenced by several factors, including the age women begin ovulating. For example, women who start ovulating at an early age will have a higher potential to reproduce as opposed to women who began ovulating later. Other factors such as age, genetics, fertilization of eggs by sperm, and menopause play a role in fecundity.
Fertility is the natural capacity to reproduce, and the fertility rate is the number of children an average woman gives birth to. Fertility is often confused with fecundity, which refers to the potential to reproduce offspring. Fertility rate is influenced by several factors including nutrition, culture, and lifestyle. Fecundity is influenced by a woman's ovulation, age, menopause, and genetics.
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Fecundity vs. Fertility: Definition & Overview
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