Figurative Language in The Raven

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  • 0:02 Figurative Language in…
  • 1:09 Symbolism
  • 2:20 Metaphor
  • 3:42 Personification
  • 5:30 Hyberbole
  • 6:33 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Angela Janovsky

Angela has taught middle and high school English, Business English and Speech for nine years. She has a bachelor's degree in psychology and has earned her teaching license.

Into the macabre and morbid side of fiction? This lesson focuses on Edgar Allan Poe's famous dark poem 'The Raven.' In particular, you'll learn how figurative language plays a role in the poem.

Figurative Language in 'The Raven'

Chilling. Grisly. Disturbing. In terms of literature, these words often bring to mind the present-day author Stephen King. However, they also describe the works of classic author Edgar Allan Poe. Poe, who lived from 1809 to 1849, became well-known for creating unsettling stories very different from the mainstream fiction of the day. In fact, it can be argued that Poe is the father of the horror story.

One of Poe's most famous works is his poem 'The Raven.' This piece exemplifies Poe's macabre inclinations. One way he achieved this mood is by using figurative language, words that don't have a literal interpretation. Have you ever told someone to break a leg? You don't want them to literally break a bone, do you? Of course not! It's a figure of speech meaning 'good luck.' Let's analyze the types of figurative language Poe uses in 'The Raven.' This lesson will not cover the poem in its entirety, so be sure to read it before you continue.

Symbolism

First, let's discuss symbolism, which is a person or object that represents something else. For instance, the American flag is a symbol. To us, it represents freedom, democracy, and patriotism. Authors use symbols to reference a larger idea or message. So how does Poe use symbolism?

Well, one example is in the very title of the poem. In Greek mythology, a raven is a symbol of good luck. White ravens were said to carry messages from the Gods to the mortal world. With this in mind, you might think this poem must end with good fortuneā€¦but quite the contrary. Instead, Poe twists this symbol to emphasize the eeriness of his raven. This bird exists to torment the narrator over the death of his beloved.

In fact, the raven in the poem is black, which often represents death or evil. Perhaps this raven has been sent not from God in Heaven, but from Satan in Hell to drive the narrator crazy with despair. With this in mind, the raven can symbolize death and the fact that the narrator will never be happy with Lenore again.

Metaphor

Another figure of speech is the metaphor, or a comparison between two things without using 'like' or 'as.' Metaphors usually make a comparison by stating one thing is another thing. Look at the following example from the poem:

''Prophet!' said I, 'thing of evil!--prophet still, if bird or devil!''

This line occurs as the narrator gets more and more upset over the raven's presence. He compares the raven to a prophet who can tell his future. Poe includes this metaphor to show the narrator's deteriorating mental health. Yes, we question whether the raven actually exists, but if he does, what sane person asks a bird to tell his future? This metaphor helps Poe share some scary insight into the narrator's mind.

Here's another metaphor:

And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming

This line is in the final stanza, where the narrator's instability is complete. Here the narrator compares the raven to a demon and reveals that the raven is still sitting in his chamber, never moving. Remembering the symbolism of a raven, we can make a connection between a demon sending a message to the narrator from the underworld. Overall, both these metaphors help indicate the narrator's mental state.

Personification

Now let's move onto personification, which makes comparisons to humans by giving inanimate objects human characteristics. Read these lines:

And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain,
Thrilled me - filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before

Do you see an adjective for the curtain that is a bit off? Have you ever called a curtain sad? Poe has the narrator use this very human emotion to describe the rustling curtain. Why would he do this? Think about the mentality of the narrator. Obviously, he is entering a serious bout of depression over the death of Lenore. He's even calling the curtains sad!

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