Back To Course

AP Physics 1: Exam Prep12 chapters | 136 lessons

Watch short & fun videos
**
Start Your Free Trial Today
**

Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching

As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed.

Free 5-day trial
Your next lesson will play in
10 seconds

Lesson Transcript

Instructor:
*Christopher Muscato*

Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado.

How does resistance impact the way that electrical currents flow through a circuit That's what we are exploring in this lesson. We'll check out resistance in the three main kinds of circuits and practice calculating this value.

Resistance is futile. No, resistance is the duty of an oppressed people. Or, maybe resistance is just a matter of physics. Although it may seem a bit less dramatic than a revolution of the people against the tyranny of a despotic king, resistance in electrical circuits is still a pretty important part of modern society. A really important part, actually. When talking about electricity, **resistance** is the degree to which a material withstands an electrical current. This is measured in ohms, represented by the Greek omega symbol, and the higher the number the greater the resistivity. Copper has low resistivity, so it conducts electricity really well. Rubber has a very high resistivity, and doesn't conduct electricity.

Now, in a circuit board, you'll have multiple circuits directing electricity in multiple ways and made of multiple materials. So, you need to know how well the entire system will conduct electricity. We call the total resistance of circuits the **equivalent resistance**, and it's pretty important to calculate this correctly. Fail to do so, and, well, your resistance could be simply futile.

So, in a complex circuit electricity will be resisted by each individual part differently. Let's start looking at this through a simple arrangement of circuits. This is a **resistor**, a device that limits or regulates an electrical current. When we have a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, we call this a **series circuit**. Since the resistors are lined up along a single path, the current only has one path to take and will pass through each resistor. That means that calculating the total resistance is pretty easy.

Basically, you just add them together. The equation looks like this: *R*=*R1*+*R2*+*R3*â€¦, where *R* is the total resistance, and an *R* with a number is each individual resistor. So, in this circuit we have three resistors with resistances of 100 ohms, 150 ohms, and 400 ohms. Plugging that into our equation looks like this: *R* = 100 ohms + 150 ohms + 400 ohms, which ends up as *R* = 650 ohms. Now, in a series circuit we usually refer to this as the total resistance rather than equivalent resistance since it's such a simple equation, although really those two terms are interchangeable.

Okay, so what if your resistors aren't lined up in a neat little row? Sometimes the resistors are arranged so that the heads and tails are facing the same direction but along individual paths. This is called a **parallel circuit**. Since each resistor has its own branch, the current is broken up, then recombined, so the equation is a bit more complex. It looks like this: 1/*R* = 1/*R1* + 1/*R2* + 1/*R3*â€¦. This means that we're dealing with reciprocals. So, if our three parallel circuits have resistances of 4 ohms, 8 ohms, and 8 ohms, the equation would look like 1/*R* = 1/4 ohms + 1/8 ohms + 1/8 ohms or 1/*R*=1/2 ohms. Finish it out and the equivalent resistance ends up as *R* = 2. In parallel circuits, the equivalent resistance is always lower than the least resistant component.

Now, let's see what this looks like in a really complex circuit. A circuit containing both series and parallel components is called a **combination circuit**. So, how in the world are we supposed to calculate the equivalent resistance for all of these different parts? It's actually simpler than you might think. Basically, we reduce the total circuit into series and parallel circuits.

In this combination circuit we can see a series circuit up here of 90 ohms and 110 ohms, with a total resistance of 200 ohms. Following the current, we next find a parallel circuit with 40 ohms and 40 ohms, which we can calculate to have an equivalent resistance of 20 ohms. Finally, we've got another series circuit of 150 ohms and 150 ohms totaling 300 ohms. Now that we've reduced this circuit into smaller components and figured out the resistance of each, we have three resistances of 200 ohms, 20 ohms, and 300 ohms. But hey, those three values are now all in a single row so we can think of it like a series circuit, can't we? That means that all we have to do is add them together and voila, the equivalent resistance for this entire combination circuit is 520 ohms. See, not that hard. Turns out, sometimes even resistance can mean working together.

When dealing with the flow of electrical currents through a system, it's important to understand **resistance**, the degree to which a material withstands an electrical current. Circuits contain multiple **resistors**, devices to regulate electrical currents, and the total resistance within a complete circuit is called the **equivalent resistance**. Calculating this differs by type of circuit.

In a **series circuit**, where resistors are arranged in a chain, total resistance is calculated by adding the resistance of each component. In a **parallel circuit**, in which resistors are aligned in the same direction but along individual paths, it is calculated as the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal values of each component. In a **combination circuit**, a circuit containing both series and parallel circuits within the total system, the equivalent resistance is calculated by reducing the circuit into individual series and parallel components, then adding them together. Basically, you calculate the resistance of each component, creating a large series circuit that is much easier to calculate. This is important to do so that you know how much current can pass through a circuit board. So, calculating resistance is necessary, but with these equations, you can make sure that it is anything but futile.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.

Create
your account

Already a member? Log In

BackDid you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

You are viewing lesson
Lesson
9 in chapter 11 of the course:

Back To Course

AP Physics 1: Exam Prep12 chapters | 136 lessons

- What is Electric Current? - Definition, Unit & Types 7:59
- Electrical Resistance: Definition, Unit & Variables 7:52
- Ohm's Law: Definition & Relationship Between Voltage, Current & Resistance 7:17
- Calculating Energy & Power in Electric Circuits 4:58
- Electric Circuit Fundamentals: Components & Types 9:38
- Series Circuits: Definition & Concepts 9:01
- Parallel Circuits: Definition & Concepts 6:43
- Electric Circuit Diagrams: Applications & Examples
- Finding the Equivalent Resistance: Series, Parallel & Combination Circuits 6:35
- Go to AP Physics 1: Direct Current Circuits

- Psychology 315: Psychology of Motivation
- Fraud Examination: Help & Review
- Psychology 314: Psychology of Learning
- Computer Science 201: Data Structures & Algorithms
- Drama 101: Intro to Dramatic Art
- Studying for Philosophy 101
- Motivation & Neuroscience
- Core Data Structures
- Object-Oriented Design Fundamentals
- Analyzing Algorithms
- Study.com FTCE Scholarship: Application Form & Information
- Study.com CLEP Scholarship: Application Form & Information
- List of FTCE Tests
- CLEP Prep Product Comparison
- CLEP Exam vs. AP Test: Difficulty & Differences
- CLEP Tests for the Military
- How to Transfer CLEP Credits

- Dollar Diplomacy: Definition & Examples
- Radio Wave: Definition, Spectrum & Uses
- SQL TRUNCATE String: Tutorial & Overview
- Business Analysis Tools, Techniques & Software
- Interpreting Pulmonary Diagnostics: Normal vs. Abnormal Results
- Health Policy Resources: Financial & Administrative
- Managing Relationships with Employees
- Edward Gibbon's Contributions to History & Historiography
- Quiz & Worksheet - Low Self-Esteem & Bullying
- Quiz & Worksheet - Demand Forecasting Techniques
- Quiz & Worksheet - How to Use Historical Data
- Quiz & Worksheet - Systems Thinking & Environmental Ethics
- Quiz & Worksheet - 4 Sided Polygons
- Political Philosophy & Social Justice Flashcards
- Ethics in Philosophy Flashcards

- PSSA - Mathematics Grade 6: Test Prep & Practice
- Mentoring in the Workplace
- MEGA Chemistry: Practice & Study Guide
- Twelfth Night Study Guide
- PSSA - English Language Arts Grade 8: Test Prep & Practice
- MTLE Chemistry: Using Math & Computers
- SHSAT Math: Rational Numbers
- Quiz & Worksheet - Natural Childbirth, Medicated Childbirth & C-Sections
- Quiz & Worksheet - 1-Variable Addition Equations
- Quiz & Worksheet - Respiratory Alkalosis
- Quiz & Worksheet - Sexuality in Adolescence
- Quiz & Worksheet - Important Neurological Tests

- Solving Subtraction Equations with Two or More Variables
- Macbeth Act 1 Discussion Questions
- How to Pass an Excel Test
- What to Do When Studying Abroad
- Why Learn Spanish?
- Writing Prompts for High School
- Free GED Classes
- How to Pass the NAPLEX
- How to Pass the US Citizenship Test
- GED Night Classes
- How to Learn a Foreign Language
- Nutrition Lesson Plan

Browse by subject