Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances: Manifestations, Causes, Care & Effects

Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances: Manifestations, Causes, Care & Effects
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  • 0:00 Electrolytes
  • 0:35 Electrolyte Disorders
  • 1:35 Causes
  • 3:20 Manifestations
  • 4:00 Care
  • 4:50 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Rebecca Gillaspy

Dr. Gillaspy has taught health science at University of Phoenix and Ashford University and has a degree from Palmer College of Chiropractic.

The fluid and electrolyte balance of your body must be maintained to keep your muscles, brain and nerves functioning properly. Learn about conditions and drugs that can upset this balance and how a patient with an imbalance is cared for.

Electrolytes

If you scoop up a cup of water from the ocean, it will look much like the fresh water that comes out of your kitchen faucet. Yet we all know that ocean water contains salt. The salt in ocean water is needed for the different sea creatures to survive. The water in your body, like ocean water, contains salt and other dissolved minerals. The electrically charged minerals found in your body fluids are called electrolytes. When they're out of balance, your health and survival are threatened. In this lesson, you'll learn about fluid and electrolyte imbalance within the body.

Electrolyte Disorders

There are many electrolytes in your body. Some of the most important are sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, and phosphate. Your body must maintain the most appropriate concentrations of these electrolytes in order for your muscles, brain, nerves and other body processes to function properly. If the concentration of one electrolyte gets too high or too low, we say that it's 'hyper' or 'hypo.' For instance, if calcium levels get too high, it creates a condition called hypercalcemia. If calcium levels get too low, it results in hypocalcemia. Variations in electrolyte levels sometimes go by their Latin names, which can be a bit more to remember. For example, the Latin word 'kal' signifies potassium. So, hyperkalemia is the term used to describe abnormally high concentrations of potassium, and hypokalemia means abnormally low concentrations of potassium.

Causes

There are different reasons why electrolyte concentrations can become imbalanced. Because electrolytes are dissolved in body fluids, we see that dehydration is a possible cause. When there's less body water, the concentration of an electrolyte increases. For instance, hypernatremia, which is having too much sodium, can result if you don't drink enough water, or you lose excessive amounts of water through vomiting, diarrhea, or severe burns. When you sweat excessively, you lose both water and salt. If you only replenish the lost fluid without actively replenishing the lost electrolytes, you could dilute sodium in the body, leading to hyponatremia, or too little sodium. Many commercial sports drinks promise to replace water and electrolytes.

Certain medications can upset your fluid and electrolyte balance. For example, diuretics are drugs that increase the frequency of urination. Diuretics help a person with high blood pressure get rid of retained fluids, but also influence the fluid and electrolyte balance of the body.

We also see that kidney problems can cause imbalances. Your kidneys are the organs that filter blood fluids and electrolytes. So, any condition involving the kidneys can throw off the balance of fluid and electrolytes in the body. Other conditions that could result in an imbalance include certain cancers, thyroid disorders, diabetes, eating disorders, alcoholism, and congestive heart failure.

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