Forming Stage of Group Development: Definition & Explanation

Instructor: Donna Swarthout
The forming stage is the first stage of Bruce Tuckman's five stages of group development. Learn about the definition and features of the forming stage, and take a quiz to test your knowledge.

Five Stages of Group Development

Have you ever worked in a group or team that did not function very well? If so, you know that groups require time and effort to reach their peak performance. Scholars have proposed different models for how groups develop over time. One of the most well-known models for group development was proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. Tuckman was an educational psychologist who studied the behavior of small groups in different situations. Tuckman initially identified four stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, and performing. He added a fifth stage called adjourning in 1977.

Tuckman believed that each of the five stages was necessary and inevitable for group growth and development. Groups that successfully move through these stages become highly cohesive. Cohesiveness is an indicator of how committed the group members are to work together to achieve the group's goals. This lesson focuses on the first of the five group development stages: forming.

The Forming Stage of Group Development

During the forming stage, the group members are just getting to know each other and usually do not yet have a clear idea of what is expected of them. They spend time observing each other, are cautious in how they present themselves, and want to be accepted by the rest of the group. Members may exhibit somewhat formal behavior and not yet be at ease with each other.

One way to help members become comfortable is to have them do ice-breakers. Ice breakers are activities that help groups ease tension and reduce formality. An example of an ice breaker is a game called Two Truths And A Lie. Group members take turns sharing three statements about themselves, one of which is a lie. The other members of the group have fun trying to guess which of the statements is the lie.

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