Fundamental & Dynamic Movement Skills

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  • 0:04 Movement Skills
  • 1:39 Fundamental Vs. Dynamic
  • 4:16 ABCs of Movement
  • 5:19 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: John Hamilton

John has tutored algebra and SAT Prep and has a B.A. degree with a major in psychology and a minor in mathematics from Christopher Newport University.

In this lesson, we discuss both fundamental and dynamic movement skills. We review a human's first five years of life, and we discuss the concepts of agility, balance, and coordination. We also recap various types of movement skills.

Movement Skills

Who doesn't love watching an NFL running back weave through defenders or a female gymnast hurtle herself through the air and stick a vault? When we think of movement, certain skills such as running, throwing, and catching come immediately to mind. We also think of jumping, kicking, and striking. Furthermore, we should factor in agility, balance, and coordination. However, there are many more types of subtler movement skills. There are fundamental and dynamic movement skills, and they entail agility, balance, and coordination.

Gymnast Vault
vault

Since this lesson encompasses movement skills, let's start right from the beginning. A baby's first movements are actually not voluntary at all, but rather involuntary and reflexive. At just two months, the baby can smile and follow an adult with his eyes. At three months, the baby can raise his chest and head while lying on his belly. At four months, the infant can hold his head steady. At six months, the art of rolling over is mastered.

Sitting up straight is one of the first big movements that a baby makes, and it's usually at about six months of age. Then, the baby begins to crawl at about nine months. Just a few short months later, a baby usually takes his first steps around one year of age. A toddler usually develops the ability to jump at about two years of age. At about age three, a child can already climb fairly well. At age four, a child begins to master the fine motor skills of drawing basic shapes such as circles and squares. This is also the age when the child begins riding a tricycle. At age five, the child adds hopping and skipping to the jumping ability learned at age two. This is also when the child begins to dress without an adult helping out.

Fundamental vs. Dynamic

Fundamental movement skills are basic patterns of movement involving the body parts that provide the foundation for physical literacy as the human body matures. Dynamic movement skills are specific movements involving the body in motion. Physical literacy is the ability to master fundamental movement and dynamic movement skills.

Skills can be divided up into four broad categories which are:

  • Cognitive - intellectual skills involving thoughts
  • Motor - involve muscle control
  • Perceptual - refer to those that interpret given information
  • Perceptual motor - entail thoughts, interpretations, and movements. They differ from perceptual skills in that they have both thoughts and actions.

In addition, perceptual motor skills have these subcategories:

  • Body management skills involve balance of the body, whether still or in motion.
  • Locomotor skills involve transporting the body from Point A to Point B, while non-locomotor skills involve moving the body parts while remaining stationary.
  • Object control skills involve the use of implements such as bats and balls.
  • Gross motor skills involve activities including crawling, running, and jumping.
  • Fine motor skills involve smaller movements such as holding a spoon or using a pencil.

Stretching and yoga are fundamental static movements as opposed to dynamic movements. Static means stationary or fixed, while dynamic means action or energetic. There are countless stretches and yoga poses; while the athlete may stand in one place, there is still movement, and it takes practice and coordination to improve at the movements.

Yoga Sunset Stretch
sunset

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