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National Board Certification Exam - Mathematics/Adolescence & Young Adulthood: Practice & Study Guide37 chapters | 342 lessons | 23 flashcard sets

Instructor:
*Yuanxin (Amy) Yang Alcocer*

Amy has a master's degree in secondary education and has taught math at a public charter high school.

Math teachers not only have to overcome their student's apprehension towards math, but also teach their students the skills they need to succeed in their next class that meet state standards.

Picture Jenny. She is a math teacher for elementary grade students. Her students are all at different math level skills. Some know how to add already while others are just getting to know what their numbers mean.

It is Jenny's job to teach these students so that they will know the skills needed to meet state standards for math for elementary students. She doesn't agree with teaching to the test, but she does agree that her students need to know the skills that are part of state standards.

She needs to help her students that need a bit more math help to catch up as well as teach all her students the new skills they need to learn now so they will succeed in later classes.

What does she do?

Jenny knows that she needs to teach the state standards for her particular grade. So, in the beginning of the year, she gives her students a test to determine where they are at mathematically. Then, she'll know what skills her students are lacking and what skills her students are good at. She'll then help the students that are lacking some math skills to catch up. To that end, she plans her goals and objectives for the year. Her **goals and objectives** tell her just what concepts she needs to teach and what outcomes she wants to see in her students.

For example, after giving the beginning of the year assessment, she notices that about half her class are struggling with addition. Well, addition is a skill that is needed in her class for the grade that she is teaching, so her objective for week 1 of the school year could be this.

- Teach the students 3 ways of performing math: visually, mentally, and verbally.

Her goal associated with this objective could be this.

- 90% of her students will get an A on a math test for addition up to 100.

She makes her goals and objective very clear so she knows what she expects. She also communicates these goals and objectives to her students so they know what to expect to. Seeing her positive goals can also give her students confidence that they will perform.

To help Jenny meet her goals and objectives, she tailors her lessons to her students. If her students are more visual, then she'll plan more visual explanations of math concepts. If her students are more hands-on learners, then she'll plan more kinesthetic or tactile activities so her students can get a feel for the math concepts.

For example, for her visual students, she might explain fractions with the help of a visual number line and breaking up each unit on the number into equal segments that represent various fractions. For her kinesthetic students, she might illustrate a pyramid by giving her students model replicas of a pyramid so her students can feel and touch each side and each vertex.

Also, she'll pace her goals and objectives so that her students learn at a pace that is comfortable for them but not too quick so as to discourage them. This skill takes some practice as you can't teach too slowly or you won't finish teaching all the skills you need to teach in a year. Jenny knows this so on some subjects she slows down but on others she speeds up because she knows how her students think and she's able to make connections so her students understand new concepts quickly and easily.

Jenny's friend who is a high school math teacher does similar things to accomplish his goals and objectives for the year. He knows the state standards for his high school grade and he explicitly lets his students know what they are. He is not teaching to the test, but he is empowering his students so they know exactly what math skills they need to move on to the next grade. Like Jenny, he has clear goals and objectives but he paces his lessons according to the needs of his students. He also has different activities that cater to his visual students, his auditory students, and his kinesthetic students.

Let's review.

A teacher's **goals and objectives** are the concepts she needs to teach and what outcomes she wants to see in her students.

During a school year, a math teacher needs to teach her students the state standards for that grade level. However, she also needs to take into consideration the needs of her students. If some of her students come into her math class not knowing certain concepts, she'll need to take time to teach them, even if these concepts are not part of her class. Then she'll need to catch up so she can teach everything she needs to teach in that school year. She'll use various activities that cater to students with different learning styles, such as visual explanations or kinesthetic explanations.

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