Children think in very different ways than adults do. As they develop in early childhood, their reasoning about change also develops as they come to understand the world better. Watch this lesson for a closer look at how children think about change.
Fiona is a happy, healthy four-year-old. Every day, she's growing and changing. She used to be tiny, but now she's getting bigger all the time. In fact, her parents have to buy her new clothes often because she keeps growing out of them.
Growing and changing is a part of everyone's life. Children, in particular, develop quickly and dramatically. During early childhood, or the period of life between ages two and seven, a child almost seems to grow into a new person.
And it's not just physical. From the ages of two to seven, children make great strides in cognitive development, or growth in thinking skills. In particular, children begin to understand how things in the world change and grow, just as they do.
Let's look at two key ways that children look at change: understanding reversibility and the movement from static reasoning to transformative reasoning.
One of Fiona's favorite things to do is to count. She loves to count as high as she can. Since she's only four, that usually means that she counts to thirteen and then starts again at one. She can do that over and over, all day long!
One day, Fiona's mom (who was tired of hearing the same numbers in the same order over and over) told Fiona that she should count backwards. Fiona was confused. What could her mother mean? Counting went in one order, in one direction.
Reversibility is the idea that actions, thoughts, or things can be reversed. This is a key idea that develops in early childhood. To a two-year-old, things always happen in one direction. By the time she is seven, though, she understands that you can untie as well as tie a shoe or that you can count backwards from thirteen just as easily as you can count up from one.
Reversibility isn't the only change in thinking that Fiona and kids her age experience. Recently, she visited her grandmother's house. Her grandmother showed her a photo of a little girl who was about Fiona's age. 'That's your mommy,' said her grandmother.
Fiona couldn't believe it. Mommy is mommy; she's not a kid!
Fiona was displaying static reasoning, also sometimes called static thought, which is the assumption that the world doesn't change. What is now has always been and will always be - or so kids like Fiona believe.
But as a child develops cognitively, they begin understanding that things change. This is called transformative reasoning or transformative thought. Understanding that mommy (and other grown-ups) used to be kids is an example of transformative thought.
Just as with reversibility, the move from static reasoning to transformative reasoning happens with time as the child ages. A two-year-old can't fathom the idea that she was ever any different from the way she is now, but a seven-year-old remembers being four and understands that she's grown.
Likewise, a baby doesn't understand that the seasons change in a regular pattern that denotes time passing, but a kid who's school-aged begins to understand how the world is different in winter than in summer. They realize that the world changes.
Cognitive development involves growth and change of thinking skills. During early childhood, kids go through several important changes in the way they see the world, including reversibility, which is the understanding that things can be reversed, and the move from static reasoning, wherein the child believes the world is always the same, to transformative reasoning, which involves understanding that the world changes.
Upon reaching the end of this video lesson, you might do the following:
- Give examples of cognitive development during early childhood
- Analyze the concept of reversibility
- Contrast static reasoning and transformative reasoning