How to Recognize Attitude Expressed by the Author Towards a Subject

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  • 0:01 What Is Attitude?
  • 1:04 Determining Attitude
  • 2:20 Objective vs. Subjective
  • 5:08 A Whole Range of Emotions
  • 7:43 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Amy Troolin

Amy has MA degrees in History, English, and Theology. She has taught college English and religious education classes and currently works as a freelance writer.

In this lesson, we will learn how to recognize an author's attitude toward his or her subject. We will pay close attention to the difference between formal, objective writing, and informal, subjective writing.

What Is Attitude?

Have you ever been accused of having an attitude? Do you act differently in some situations than you do in others, say when you are at a job interview or hanging out with your friends? Authors have attitudes, too, and they write differently depending on their situation. Indeed, writers' attitudes toward their subject matter often show up clearly in their writing, and readers have the job of identifying a writer's attitude and determining why he or she takes that tone and how it affects the meaning of the text.

An author's attitude, or tone, is simply his or her feelings about the subject he or she is writing about. Writers express their attitudes through their word choice, sentence structure, and figurative language. Attitudes also show up in the details, reasons, and evidence writers select to support their descriptions and arguments.

Determining Attitude

To determine an author's attitude, readers should ask themselves the following questions:

1. What kinds of words does the author use? Are they specific or general? Are they emotional or neutral? Are they common and familiar or scholarly and unfamiliar?

2. Does the author use figurative language, which compares dissimilar things to make a literary point?

3. Is the author's sentence structure simple or complex? Does the author write long sentences or short ones?

4. Does the author present a balanced view of the subject?

5. What kinds of details, reasons, and evidence does the author include to fill out his or her descriptions or support his or her arguments? Are these elements rational or emotional?

Answering these questions honestly and thoroughly will help you, the reader, figure out the author's attitude toward his or her subject. Now, let's take a look at some of the attitudes you might uncover in your search.

Objective vs. Subjective

Writers' attitudes tend to fall into two broad categories: formal and objective or informal and subjective.

Formal and objective attitudes tend to focus on facts rather than emotions. Writers aiming for this tone usually use longer, more complex sentences, higher-level vocabulary, and a third person point of view (no references to 'I' or 'you') that distances the writer from the subject matter. Descriptive details are usually restrained, and the author presents a balanced view of the subject by acknowledging other viewpoints and citing rational reasons supported by reliable, well-sourced evidence.

Informal or subjective attitudes, on the other hand, tend to be more emotional. Writers who express this tone choose conversational, common language that might include slang or figures of speech. Sentences are usually simpler and shorter. Details tend to be quite vivid, and writers often personally address their readers in the first person ('I') and second person ('you') points of view. Writers may still use logical reasons and evidence to support their points, but these elements may be based more on emotion than rational argument.

Let's look at a couple writing samples to illustrate the difference between these two attitudes. The first exhibits the formal and objective tone.

'The battlefield at Gettysburg attracts thousands of visitors every year. Many of them travel long distances to tour the battlefield and town, learn about Civil War history, and experience the feeling of standing in a place where a major historical event occurred.'

Notice that the writer presents just the facts without any personal interpretation. The third person point of view extends throughout, the sample's vocabulary is quite high-level, and the second sentence is long and fairly complex.

Now let's look at a sample with an informal and subjective tone.

'The battlefield at Gettysburg is one of the coolest places I've ever seen. It attracts thousands of visitors every year, and these people come from long distances just to stand in this place where a big historical event happened. Most tourists also like to take tours of the battlefield and town and learn something about Civil War history in the process.'

Do you see the difference? The writer uses the first person point of view, everyday language, and shorter sentences.

Whole Range of Emotions

If an author's attitude is informal and subjective, it can encompass a whole range of emotions. Tone can be angry, cheerful, joyous, critical, comic, nostalgic, gentle, depressed, bitter, respectful, optimistic, pessimistic, passionate, suspicious, mocking, relaxed, intense, and much more.

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