Internet Connectivity and Communication Standards

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  • 0:04 Standards and…
  • 1:02 Networking Protocols
  • 1:44 Functions &…
  • 2:10 Networking Standards
  • 2:37 Networking Standards Bodies
  • 4:14 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Meghalee Goswami
This lesson explores the network protocols that aid in data communication. It also discusses networking standards (formal and de facto) and introduces some of the organizations that are involved in establishing these networking standards.

Standards and Protocols Necessity

With the creation of huge computer networks, with many more devices being added to the chain each day, it became necessary to set up some standards that defined the way computers interacted with each other and how data was transferred amongst them. Standards and protocols provide the essential rules that enable hardware and software to work together in order to allow devices to communicate over a computer network. The major network protocol suite used for this purpose is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

When discussing standards, formal and de facto are the two most commonly used. Networking organizations such as IEEE, ISO, IETF, ITU-T, and CODASYL set the standards for network communication and facilitate interoperability of network technologies. All network protocols and components are designed per these standards.

Networking Protocols

TCP/IP is a standard protocol that defines how information is bundled together in what is called network packets and sent across a network between devices without any damage or loss to it. This protocol stack was developed in 1978 by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf. It's responsible for the guaranteed transfer of information across a network.

TCP is a layer four (transport layer) connection-oriented protocol, which ensures the establishment of a connection between the source and destination before transferring data. In the network layer, the internet protocol carries 32-bit sized packets from the source that hold the IP address of the destination.

Functions & Characteristics of TCP/IP

TCP ensures the establishment of a safe connection for data transfer. The data transferred using TCP arrives at the destination in the same order as was sent from the source. Checksums are performed in order to detect errors in the data transfer sequence. Destination addresses are stored that point to where packets need to be delivered. IP addresses are used in routing packets across a network.

Standards are the procedures or widely agreed-upon rules set by networking organizations for designing networks, network components, and data transfer processes. Typically, two types of standards are followed in the industry:

  • Formal standards - these are built by the officials and network professionals in organizations
  • De facto standards - these are widely accepted standards that are created as per market requirements

Networking Standards Bodies

Some of the organizations that are popular in the networking world for setting up significant data transfer standards include IEEE, ISO, ACM, IETF, ITU-T, and CODASYL.

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