Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules

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  • 0:05 Macromolecules
  • 0:45 Organic Macromolecules
  • 3:27 Inorganic Macromolecules
  • 4:30 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Amy Meyers

Amy holds a Master of Science. She has taught science at the high school and college levels.

Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.

Macromolecules

A macromolecule is a huge molecule made up of smaller subunits called monomers. Many macromolecules are made up of polymers through polymerization. Polymerization is just when two or more monomers join through a chemical reaction to make a macromolecule.

Organic macromolecules are huge molecules that include carbon that are found in living things. They include ones you are probably aware of: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. There are fewer inorganic macromolecules and most of these are synthetic (manmade). These are things like rubber, polypropylene and polyethylene.

Organic Macromolecules

In a condensation reaction, two molecules combine and lose a small molecule in the process
Condensation Reaction

Proteins are formed through a condensation reaction between amino acid monomers. A condensation reaction is when two molecules combine to form a larger molecule but lose a small molecule, kind of like a waste product. Proteins provide energy for the body, are hormones, make up your hair, tendons and ligaments and act as enzymes.

Enzymes are substances that increase the speed of metabolic reactions in the body. Without them, reactions would happen too slowly for life to exist in the way we know it. For example, the body needs to rid the blood of excess CO2 by delivering it to the lungs to be expelled. The reaction that needs to happen is CO2 (carbon dioxide) combining with H2 O (water) to form H2 CO3 (carbonic acid). This reaction is extremely slow without an enzyme - only about 2000 molecules of carbonic acid can be produced per hour. The body needs millions produced per hour to clear the blood of CO2. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction to meet the body's need.

Although a varied group, lipids, also known as fats, share one characteristic among them: they are not very soluble in water. Lipids are hydrophobic, meaning they hate water, and contain a lot of C-H bonds. Lipids are sources of energy for the body and also are a large part of cell membranes. In addition, they add a lot of flavor to food. That's why high-fat foods taste so good. Steroids are lipids that are made from cholesterol. Steroids can be good things, like when they occur naturally in the body and regulate your metabolism, immune response or reproductive cycle. They can also be bad for you, like when athletes use them to illegally improve their performance but end up having acne, liver damage and high blood pressure.

Carbohydrates can be made up of simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose
Carbohydrate Sugars

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