Introspection and Self-Awareness Theory in Psychology: Definition & Examples Video

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  • 0:06 Introspection
  • 1:55 Self-Awareness Theory
  • 2:56 Effects of Self-Awareness
  • 4:31 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Natalie Boyd

Natalie is a teacher and holds an MA in English Education and is in progress on her PhD in psychology.

How do introspection and self-awareness affect the way we view ourselves? In this lesson, we'll look at the definition, examples, and effects of introspection and self-awareness.


Imagine this: You are standing on the porch of a vast house. You can look out over the yard and see all that's before you: trees, birds, a fence. You could walk down the steps to the front yard and explore the world beyond the house. Or, you can turn around and go into the house, walk through each room, and discover what's inside.

That's kind of the difference between introspection and outward observation. Introspection happens when people look inward and examine their thoughts, feelings, and motives. It's kind of like walking inside the house to explore.

Often, people focus more on the world around them than on what's going on inside. This makes sense. After all, there are usually things around us that demand our attention. People, weather, animals, nature, buildings, and millions of other things can take our attention.

But, introspection is focusing our attention away from all of those other things and putting it on our interior life. Introspection is one way that we construct an idea of who we are. But, there are a couple of problems with introspection. First, people don't use introspection as much as we might expect them to. As we mentioned, with so many other things to take our attention away, people just don't sit and examine their thoughts and feelings very often.

The other issue that arises with introspection is that when people do use it, they aren't always aware of why they feel the way they do or what motivates their actions.

Still, introspection can be a powerful tool to learn about yourself. It can lead to self-awareness, or understanding that you are separate from your environment and from other people and appreciating what makes you different.

Self-Awareness Theory

Think about a time when you did or said something that you aren't proud of. Maybe you were mean to your friend because you felt jealous, or you took a candy bar from a store without paying for it. Why did you feel badly about your behavior? Self-Awareness Theory has an answer.

Self-Awareness Theory is the idea that when we pay attention to ourselves, through introspection or some other way, we judge ourselves according to our values. In the example above, your behavior was out of line with your values, and, therefore, you felt guilty about it.

You might think that self-awareness happens all the time, but studies show that, like introspection, people aren't self-aware most of the time. In one classic study, scientists gave people a beeper to carry around with them. Whenever the beeper went off, the participants were asked to stop what they were doing and record their thoughts. Surprisingly, subjects were engaging in self-aware thinking only about 8% of the time!

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