Sudha has a Doctor of Education degree in math education and is currently working as a Information Technology Specialist.
In this lesson, you will learn about the job design process following job analysis: the benefits, approaches, and issues. You will also learn about the job redesign process and its benefits.
What Is a Job Design?
Joe is the manger of the HR department in his organization. After a consultant completed a recent job analysis for his company, he is currently working on a job design. Joe knows that a job design will help him describe, in detail, a job's responsibilities, scope, and appropriate employee.
Joe realizes that for an accurate job design he would need to:
Identify and organize objectives
Organize tasks based on objectives
Clearly outline the job responsibilities
Joe decides to follow a logical sequence to complete his design process. He identifies the items he needs to complete for the job design as follows:
Identify the job's tasks
Identify how the tasks are performed
Break up the tasks into units and determine what each unit of task includes
Determine the sequence in which the tasks need to be performed
Benefits of a Job Design
Joe's company was going through a reorganization process, and he recently learned that a job design for an upcoming vacant position would benefit the company in the following ways:
Ensuring there is no overload or under load of work
Ensuring that tasks are not repeated unnecessarily across jobs
Ensuring that the staff are not isolated, instead promoting integration and collaboration
Defining clear working hours
Defining clear work processes
Different Approaches to a Job Design
As he is researching the job design process, Joe realizes that he needs to identify and implement approaches depending on the visions and goals of his company. Let's take a look at the three approaches he uses.
The first is the human approach. Joe's company takes prides in focusing on individual employee needs for responsibility, recognition, growth and respect. He thinks that this is a good approach to consider, especially since his company focuses on motivating the individual through growth and achievement. They also promote work-life balance including working conditions, policies, and salary to increase satisfaction at the work place.
The second is the engineering approach. Joe studies the engineering approach even though it isn't ideal for his company. This approach involves the management assigning tasks to the employee in complete detail with deadlines and task descriptions. Since the goal of Joe's company is to give more freedom to the individual, he decides not to pursue this task-based approach.
The third is the job characteristics approach. Joe thinks the job characteristics approach is something to consider for his company, especially since it focuses on rewarding employees for their work to increase job satisfaction. Joe learns that he needs to identify the following five core dimensions of the job:
Skill: employees skills have to be utilized
Identity of a task: identifying the individual tasks required to complete a job
Significance of a task: importance and impact of a job to the employee
Employee autonomy: the degree of freedom the employee has
Feedback: how feedback can be used to improve job performance
Issues to Consider for a Job Design
As Joe continues with his job design process, he learns there are a few issues he needs to consider. In particular, the following:
Telecommuting: does the job allow for telecommuting or a virtual office; the advantages and disadvantages
Job sharing: will two or more people share the same job, so when one is out of office the job will continue without interruptions
Flexible working options: will giving the employees freedom to work at their own schedule increase employee satisfaction
Alternate work patterns: for instance, will allowing the employees to work on a shorter week affect the overall productivity of the company
Joe makes a note to himself to revisit some of these options.
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Joe is happy that he gathered all the needed information to complete his job design process. Now, he decides to be proactive and consider the job redesign process. He knows that some elements of the job need to be redesigned to improve employee satisfaction and get the maximum output for the company.
Joe outlines the following process for a job redesign:
Revising the job content: gather information about the job and identify discrepancies between the person and the job
Analyze the job for outcomes and performance: identify why the employee is not able to provide satisfactory results
Alter the elements of a job: potentially cut back on responsibilities or add functions or increased accountability to help improve employee performance
Reorganize the job description: ensure that the right employee is hired and placed for the job
Shuffle tasks and responsibilities: allow the employees to take on new or altered tasks so they can be motivated to perform better and with increased satisfaction
While considering the job redesign process, Joe identifies the reasons why this would be good for his company. At a team meeting with his management, Joe discusses the following benefits of a job redesign:
Helps enhance the quality of work-life: when skills and qualifications are fully utilized, employees are motivated with increased productivity and work quality
Helps increase the productivity of the company: when the employee is satisfied and is able to provide their best output, the productivity of the company increases
Gives employees a sense of belonging: when the employee feels motivated in their job, it helps them complete their responsibilities; it also retains talent in the company
Identifies the perfect person for the job: by identifying the right person and making use of their full potential, the employee and the organization can attain their goals
Job design follows the job analysis process. It identifies tasks and job responsibilities so that the job description is made clear and the right person is hired for the job. Benefits of a job design include ensuring that there are no repetitive tasks and that working hours and processes are defined clearly. There are different ways to approach a job design:
Job characteristics approach
Periodically, a job redesign is required to realign a job's requirements to an employee's skills and responsibilities. Advantages of a job redesign include enhanced quality of work and improved productivity.
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