Job Analysis & Evaluation: Definition, Process & Methods

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  • 0:03 Job Analysis:…
  • 1:34 Methods of Job Analysis
  • 2:30 Recruiting and Hiring
  • 3:43 Performance Appraisal
  • 4:28 Evaluating Training Needs
  • 5:01 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Sudha Aravindan

Sudha has a Doctor of Education Degree and is currently working as a Information Technology Specialist.

In this lesson, we'll learn about job analysis methods including interviews, questionnaires, personality tests, intelligence tests, and aptitude/ability tests to analyze and evaluate a job. We'll see how this helps businesses make decisions on recruitment and hiring.

Job Analysis: Definition & Purpose

Laura was hired as a human resources administrator at a local company. One of her first tasks was to perform a job analysis for one of the positions that was going to be vacant soon because of the employee's retirement; this required Laura to evaluate the position and help the company make decisions on recruitment and hiring. A job analysis helps a company to gather detailed information about the responsibilities and skills required for a job, as well as about the outcomes and work environment.

Laura met with the senior administrators of her company to understand what the expectations were. She learned that the purpose of a job analysis includes:

  • Deciding on an appropriate method to conduct the analysis — observation, interview, or questionnaire
  • Documenting the employment procedures at the company so that the information can be utilized for training, appraisal, and compensation
  • Identifying the correct parameters required for fully understanding the responsibilities of the job and selecting the right person for the job based on qualifications and experience
  • Analyzing the job and not the person to determine the activities, responsibilities, and importance in relation to other jobs
  • Ensuring the job conforms to the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), identifying the physical requirements of the job, and ensuring reasonable accommodations are provided
  • Analyzing and predicting the changes that may occur to the responsibilities of a job over a period of time for redesign

Methods of Job Analysis

Laura did some research on her own to decide on the methods she could use to conduct a job analysis. She learned that there are a number of methods, and she recorded her observations for further discussion with the company management.

These job analysis methods include:

  • Interviews: She would interview the person who is currently on the job to understand the everyday tasks, roles, and responsibilities.
  • Questionnaires: She would use the Position Analysis Questionnaire, or PAQ, to assess activities, mental processes, output, interpersonal relationships, and job context.
  • She can also use the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), an online database that provides multiple ways in which a job can be described as well as cross-job comparisons and identification of worker characteristics, requirements, occupational requirements, and educational requirements.

Recruiting and Hiring

Laura's supervisor Julie explained to Laura that the requirements of the job as identified through the analysis process would be used for recruiting and hiring a new employee. Laura and Julie discussed that, before posting the job, they would refer to the job analysis report provided by Laura to make decisions on the position description and the candidate's interview. In particular, the report should help with the following recruiting aspects:

  • Describing the desired qualifications of the candidate, including duties and responsibilities
  • Prioritizing the qualifications required for the job
  • Designing interview questions, screening tools, and scoring systems

After the position is posted and the candidates apply for the job, the next challenge is to hire the right candidate. Laura presented the following ideas to Julie on how to identify the ideal candidate for the position:

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