Knowledge and Change in Intelligence Over Time

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: What is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:05 Fluid and Crystallized…
  • 2:37 Divergent and…
  • 3:53 Intelligence Changes over Time
  • 5:49 Lesson Summary
Save Save Save

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Log in or Sign up

Speed Speed Audio mode
Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Jade Mazarin

Jade is a board certified Christian counselor with an MA in Marriage and Family Therapy, and a certification in Natural Health. She is also a freelance writer on emotional health and spirituality.

In this lesson, we will look at Raymond Cattell's two types of intelligence: fluid and crystallized. We will also look at convergent and divergent ways of thinking and changes in intelligence over time.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

You know how some people seem to be more intelligent in certain ways and not as intelligent in others? Maybe someone you know is great at figuring out how to write a personal reflection in class, but not so good at remembering facts studied for a test.

Psychologist Raymond Cattell believed there are two types of intelligence: fluid and crystallized. Fluid intelligence refers to the mental abilities used to solve problems and tackle new situations. Maybe you can come up with several courses of action to consider when faced with a situation, even if you've never faced this situation before. If you can, then you are adept at fluid intelligence.

Here is Mark to give us an example. Mark just became the journalist for a pet magazine. His job is to create cute, funny captions for the photos that come in. Each photo presents a new situation for Mark to come up with ideas. He is now looking at one of a dog laying on the ground and covering his ears, and is imagining several reasons he could be doing this, like being tired of hearing the cat meowing nearby. Mark's ability to think creatively displays his high level of fluid intelligence.

The other type, crystallized intelligence, refers to being able to use already learned knowledge, skills and experience. Are you someone who can tackle situations by applying what you've learned in the past? If you are good at drawing from previous learning, whether it be in social or academic situations, you have a knack for crystallized intelligence.

Here is Bob to illustrate. He is fixing a pipe in the home that has sprung a leak for the third time, as his teenage son is complaining about a difficult teacher. Bob begins to tell his son what he did with a difficult teacher when he was a teenager, believing he could use the same strategy. In this scenario, both Bob's instructions to his son and fixing leaky pipes are based on prior learning that he applies today.

As far as how the types show themselves in academic exercises, fluid can be compared to working on a new project, whereas crystallized can be displayed in filling out definitions for memorized terms. Since the combination of fluid and crystallized intelligence display a well-rounded intellect, many IQ tests measure both. Along with two types of intelligence, we have two different ways of thinking. These lead us to different ways of tackling questions or problems. They are referred to as divergent and convergent ways of thinking.

Divergent and Convergent Thinking

Divergent thinking refers to the thinking we use to come up with various answers to a question or situation. Convergent thinking refers to the thinking we use to come up with one right answer. Let's meet Stacey and Regina who each represent a different type of thinking.

Stacey is a student who likes to do things outside of the box. She is a painter, and she believes there are several ways of solving problems. She likes to think of other people's perspectives, and she likes assignments where she can explore her personal thoughts on issues.

Her friend Regina, however, likes structure. She likes it when teachers tell her exact assignments rather than just giving her guidelines to work around. When there is a problem to solve, she believes there is one answer to it, and she tends to prefer math equations over free writing. Stacey is someone who shows divergent ways of thinking in multiple areas of her life, whereas Regina displays convergent thinking in multiple areas.

Later on, you'll take a quiz for this video. The multiple-choice questions are designed to lead you to one specific answer, so it requires that you use convergent thinking. In order to use divergent thinking, you would need to do something like respond to a hypothetical story for which you come up with possible solutions.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about
Try it risk-free for 30 days

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it risk-free for 30 days!
Create an account