Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Doubling

Instructor: T.J. Hoogsteen

T.J. is currently a grade 5 teacher and Vice-Principal. He has a master's degree in Educational Administration and is working toward an Ed.D. in Educational Leadership.

In this lesson, you will learn a strategy called doubling to help multiply facts to ten. You will learn how to use known facts and double the product. Test your knowledge with a quiz at the end of the lesson!

Is This Where Doubling Came From?

Greek mythology tells the story of Heracles versus the Hydra, a water beast with several heads. During the battle, Heracles tried to defeat the monster by cutting off its heads. He learned very quickly that it wasn't such a good idea. Every time he cut off one head, two grew back. It's a long shot, but maybe this is also how Heracles learned to multiply by doubling.


As long as you know a few multiplication facts, you can use this strategy to figure out and learn new facts. To use this strategy, find a set of facts that is known to you. Then, double one factor (or add the number to itself), and double the product, or answer from the first set of facts.

For example, let's imagine there is a Hydra with 4 necks, each neck has 1 head, or 4 x 1=4. Now imagine that during a battle it loses all 4 heads, but each neck will sprout 2 new heads (doubling a factor, or 4 x 2), so to figure out how many heads it now has, we also have to double the original number of heads it had (or doubling the product). Remember, to double a number just add it to itself. So if 4 x 1 =4, then I double the second factor to make 4 x 2, I double the first answer (4 + 4), and I get 8 as my new product.

Example 1

Now that I know 4 x 2, I can use doubling to help me figure out a new set of facts. I double the 2 (2 + 2) to get 4, now my new equation is 4 x 4. Well, if know that 4 x 2 is 8, and I doubled one factor, I then double the product (8 + 8) to get 16. So, I now know 4 x 4 is 16.

Example 2

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