Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Rectangular Array

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  • 0:01 Learning Multiplication
  • 1:25 Building the Array Yourself
  • 2:49 Using It to Help You
  • 3:21 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Yuanxin (Amy) Yang Alcocer

Amy has a master's degree in secondary education and has taught math at a public charter high school.

In this video lesson, you will learn what a rectangular array looks like when it is used to show multiplication. You will also learn how to create your own multiplication array to practice multiplication.

Learning Multiplication

Multiplication is one of the basic operations in math. You can think of multiplication as repeated addition. Because multiplication is one of those necessary math operations that you need to know in order to do well in math, learning your multiplication numbers up to 10 will help you solve your math problems, especially when you can't use a calculator. There are several methods that you can use to help you learn your multiplication. In this lesson, we'll look at one of these methods: the multiplication array method.

The Multiplication Array

Our multiplication array is a 10 by 10 table that shows the results of multiplying the numbers 1 through 10 with the numbers 1 through 10. It looks like this:

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70
8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90
10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

The first column and the top row show you what numbers are being multiplied together. To use this table you locate the first number you are multiplying in the first column. Mentally highlight that row. Next, you look for the other number that you're multiplying in the top row. Mentally highlight that column. Where your highlights meet is your answer.

So, let's locate 3 times 7. You first find your 3 in the first column. Now mentally highlight that row. Next, look for the 7 in the top row. Now mentally highlight that column. Where your highlights meet is the answer to 3 times 7. If you've done it correctly, you'll see that it equals 21.

Building the Array Yourself

You can use this array to help you learn your multiplication. It does lots of practice with lots of repetition until it becomes second nature to you. The best way that I've found is to create these tables yourself over and over. Once you've created the table, you can then use it to test yourself.

To create one of these tables, you set up your table by drawing 10 rows and 10 columns. These squares will hold your answers. On top of the table, you'll write the numbers 1 through 10. To the left of the table, you will also write the numbers 1 through 10. This labels each row and column with the number that is being multiplied. You then go ahead and fill in each square with the answer.

To fill in each square, you can work your way from left to right and top to bottom. You can use repeated addition to help you fill in each square. For example, when working with the multiplication by 2, the row labeled with 2, you can write down the 2 in that first empty square, then you add 2 to get 4, and you can write that in the next square. Then, you add 2 again, this time to the 4 to get the answer for the next square: 4 + 2 = 6. Your next square then is 6 + 2 = 8. And you keep going until you've reached the end where you'll get 20.

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