# Levers: Definition, Classes & Examples

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• 0:01 How to Lift a Boulder
• 0:26 What Are Simple Machines?
• 1:09 What Are Levers?
• 1:37 Torque
• 2:24 Three Types of Levers
• 4:26 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Thomas Higginbotham

Tom has taught math / science at secondary & post-secondary, and a K-12 school administrator. He has a B.S. in Biology and a PhD in Curriculum & Instruction.

A lever is one of the most common tools we use to help us lift things beyond our strength limit. Learn about the components of a lever, find out about three different lever classes, and see some common examples of each.

## How to Lift a Boulder

You're out in the woods with nothing but trees, rocks, and your dog. Fido has just gone into a cave when a giant boulder tumbles down, covering the entrance to the cave. You try to move the rock, but it doesn't budge. That's the bad news. The good news is that, not only do you have all the things you need to move that rock, your bad luck is the perfect scenario for this lesson. In this lesson, you'll learn how levers make us stronger.

## What Are Simple Machines?

A lever is one of the six types of simple machines, a list that also includes wedges, the wheel and axle, the incline plane, screws and pulleys. What does a simple machine do? It takes an input force (a push or a pull) and changes its magnitude and/or direction into an output force onto a load. For example, an axe-head (which is a wedge) takes all of the downward (input) force we can muster and concentrates that input force into the narrow area of axe-blade impact, which increases the force at the point of load (the point of impact with the wood). The direction of the input force is changed from straight down to horizontal, pushing the piece of wood apart. The degree to which input force is increased is called mechanical advantage.

## What Are Levers?

Levers are varied, but all have a few components. They all have an arm, a straight, relatively inflexible part, like the handle of an axe or the entire length of a see-saw, that needs to be unbreakable and relatively unbendable. They also have a fulcrum, or pivot point on which the lever rests and pivots. A basic lever is the see-saw, where the board on which people sit is the arm, the pivot on which the boards sits is the fulcrum, and the contact point of the see saw with the ground is the load.

## Torque

Perhaps the most important characteristic of a lever, aside from the assumption that your lever arm won't snap or bend, is the distance of the input force or load from the fulcrum. Without getting too much into the mathematics, torque is force multiplied by distance, and is crucial to levers working. Consider the see-saw from the earlier image. If the kid and the adult are nearly equal distances from the fulcrum, the kid won't be able to lift the adult. If torque = force x distance, a kid with a weight of 50 pounds who is 4 feet from the fulcrum will produce 200 lbs-ft of torque.

This is not enough to lift the adult who has a torque of 800 lbs-ft. However, if the fulcrum is 9 feet from the 50-pound kid and one foot from the 200-pound adult, that kid has plenty of torque to lift the adult.

## Three Types of Levers

There are three types of levers, depending on the placements of the input force, the load, and the fulcrum. A Class 1 lever has the fulcrum between the input force and load, just like the see saw example we have been using.

A first-class lever could help you retrieve your dog (had you forgotten about him already?). You could find a stout branch to use as the arm and a rock to use as the fulcrum. Hooray, physics!

Other examples of first class levers include a crow bar and rowboat oars.

A Class 2 lever has the load between the fulcrum and the input force. A classic example is a wheelbarrow, where the wheel acts as the fulcrum, whatever's in the bucket part is the load, and where your hands pull up is the input force.

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