Love & Sex as Biological & Psychological Motivators

Instructor: Karin Gonzalez

Karin has taught middle and high school Health and has a master's degree in social work.

The motivators for sex are usually biological, just as the motivators for love are typically psychological. In this lesson, you'll learn about psychological and biological motivators, as well as the various reasons that love and sex are motivators.

Being in love can certainly push and inspire someone to be their best self for their love interest. Let's take Emily, for example, who is in love with Max. Emily begins running because Max is a marathon runner, even though she hated running previously.

Being in love and desiring the love of others can be one of the strongest motivators.
couple in love

A motivator can be a person or thing that makes someone more likely to do something. For example, cheerleaders are intended to motivate football players to play harder. A biological motivator is a physical, hormonal, or bodily element that makes someone excited to do something. For instance, a person who is hungry is motivated to buy a slice of pizza. A psychological motivator is an emotional, social or cognitive influence that makes someone excited to do something. For example, a teenage boy who wants to impress the girl he is taking to prom may be motivated to buy a nice suit and style his hair. The story about Emily and Max in the opening scenario is another example of a psychological motivator.

Sex as a Biological Motivator

From the innate need to carry on one's genes to the next generation to the simple desire for physical pleasure, sex is mostly a biological motivator. Here are some reasons:


Species need to reproduce for survival of their species. Therefore, reproduction is an innate motivator having to do with evolution. Research has shown that women subconsciously make their partner aware that they are ovulating by dressing nicer, wearing perfume, flirting and altering their tone of voice for about six days mid-cycle, both before and after the day that they ovulate.


Pleasure is known as the biggest motivator for sex. Even before children understand that species need to reproduce to survive, they may exhibit sexual behavior through masturbation in toddlerhood. They do this simply because it feels good, not because they are wanting to procreate.


Estrogens, progestins, and androgens are considered the sex hormones that incite sexual desire in men and women. Androgens, most commonly testosterone, are more prevalent in men, which is why men generally have higher sexual desire compared to women. Estrogen occurs more frequently in women, though both men and women have estrogen and testosterone.

Stress Relief

Oxytocin and endorphins, often called the happy hormones, are released into the brain after sex, creating a sense of euphoria. These hormones can assist in relaxation. Research has shown that people who have sex more often have less stress, anxiety, and depression.

Love as a Psychological Motivator

Love can fulfill basic needs, like safety and security. Yet love can also be a psychological motivator, and its functions range from improving one's emotional state to satisfying the need for attachment and intimacy. Here are some reasons that love is a psychological motivator:

Sadness and Loneliness

It may seem strange that negative emotions can be motivators, but it actually makes perfect sense. If a person is feeling sad and lonely, they will be motivated to connect with others. This will push them to reach out to others and become more loving, giving, and kind. So, essentially, love can be a motivator to feel happy.

Identity and Purpose

A parent who loves their child unconditionally and accepts all of his unique mannerisms and quirks is teaching that child that he can comfortably be himself and be accepted and loved for that. This love essentially allows him to shape his own identity. The same can be said about romantic love. A person will try to find a lover that validates their identity, allows them to be themselves, and gives them purpose and drive.


The need for bond and attachment to others is a rudimentary need of all humans (and animals). We are social creatures. Our attachment to caregivers was vital when we were children because it provided us with a sense of love and security and helped shape our identity and self-esteem. After childhood, attachment to parents became less salient and a more social and romantic need for attachment came to the forefront. This need is, at its core, a desire for belongingness, connection and high self-esteem.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about
Try it risk-free for 30 days

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it risk-free for 30 days!
Create an account