Mesopotamian Writing System & Development

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Artem Cheprasov

Artem has a doctor of veterinary medicine degree.

Mesopotamia developed cuneiform, which is one of the earliest known writing systems. Learn how cuneiform evolved from symbols and pictures to wedge shapes that bore little resemblance to the original writing in Mesopotamia. Updated: 01/11/2022


Nowadays, the fact that you can read and write is taken for granted. In fact, it's not even seen as a major accomplishment. It's something that is part and parcel of life. But a long time ago, this wasn't the case. In fact, it was so rare that if you could read and write you could be set for life. Wouldn't it be nice if life were that easy today? Just learn to read and write and you'll be golden!

Let's go over the ancient Mesopotamian writing system and how it even came into existence in the first place.

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Mesopotamian Warfare: Weapons & Tactics

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:04 Writing
  • 0:34 Mesopotamian Writing System
  • 1:23 Development
  • 3:33 Lesson Summary
Save Save Save

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Log in or Sign up

Speed Speed

Mesopotamian Writing System

So what was the ancient Mesopotamian writing system? You may have already heard of it. Today, we call it cuneiform, from the Latin for cuneus, which means ''wedge'' and signifying the wedge-like shape of the writing you can see here.


Hundreds of cuneiform symbols were used to represent words and syllables. The system also had an alphabet so you could spell a word out like we do in English today. However, the writing system was complex and some parts of it are ambiguous. In fact, one symbol could represent everything from a sound or syllable to a concept or object.

And cuneiform was not a distinct writing system, per se. There were probably numerous languages that used this writing system. As a result, many cuneiform inscriptions remain undeciphered to this day.


Ancient Mesopotamians invented writing around the fourth millennium BCE. This was made possible perhaps as a result of numerous factors:

  • A change in the environment that allowed people to settle
  • The creation of cities, which brought about more complex societies
  • The economic need to keep track and records of the exchange of goods

But the ancient Mesopotamians didn't create writing out of nowhere. People kept records before the invention of writing. Some would place sticks into the ground to count things like the number of sheep someone owned. Others would rely on clay tokens or small clay marbles for bookkeeping. Over time, in order to keep more specific track of things, markings developed on these tokens as the variety of goods increased.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back

Resources created by teachers for teachers

Over 30,000 video lessons & teaching resources‐all in one place.
Video lessons
Quizzes & Worksheets
Classroom Integration
Lesson Plans

I would definitely recommend to my colleagues. It’s like a teacher waved a magic wand and did the work for me. I feel like it’s a lifeline.

Jennifer B.
Jennifer B.
Create an account to start this course today
Used by over 30 million students worldwide
Create an account