Mitochondrial Outer Membrane: Definition & Overview

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  • 0:00 Mitochondrial Outer Membrane
  • 0:45 Mitochondria
  • 1:10 Structure of the Outer…
  • 2:25 The Inter-Membrane Space
  • 2:50 Programmed Cell Death
  • 3:25 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nicholas Gauthier
The mitochondrion is an organelle found in our cells that is sometimes referred to as a 'cellular power plant.' Each mitochondrion is enclosed in a membrane. Learn the structure and function of this membrane.

Mitochondrial Outer Membrane

Mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration in our cells. They have their own DNA and are likely descended from bacteria that entered larger cells a very long time ago. Each mitochondrion has an outer membrane that separates it from the rest of the cell.

The mitochondrial outer membrane is a double phospholipid membrane that separates the inside of the organelle from the rest of the cell. It also helps define the inter-membrane space between itself and the mitochondrial inner membrane.

The outer membrane is made of the same phospholipid bilayer that the cell's own membrane is made of, and it functions in much the same way. Like the cell membrane, it regulates what goes into and out of the mitochondrion.

Mitochondria

Before we get into specifics on the mitochondrial outer membrane, let's take a closer look at mitochondria as a whole. The mitochondrion is the organelle where aerobic cellular respiration takes place. This organelle receives the products of glycolysis and breaks them down further to release more energy. While much of the activity inside the mitochondrion takes place near or on the inner membrane, it is the outer membrane that determines which materials enter and leave.

The mitochondrion, showing the membranes, the inter-membrane space and other parts. The cristae are folds of the inner membrane.
mitochondrion

Structure of the Outer Membrane

The basic structure of the membrane is similar to that of a eukaryotic cell membrane. Both have proteins integrated into the phospholipid bilayer at a ratio of about 1:1. These proteins are responsible for allowing materials into the mitochondrion.

Porins are channels formed by these proteins in the phospholipid bilayer. These channels allow smaller proteins to enter freely by diffusion. For larger proteins looking to enter the organelle, the membrane has a complex of proteins called the translocase of the outer membrane or TOM. The TOM responds to signals from certain large proteins, opening a gateway to allow them in. These tend to be proteins made in the cytosol by the cell's nuclear DNA. Many proteins needed by the mitochondrion are made outside the mitochondrion by the cell.

The outer membrane functions in concert with the inner membrane, which also has protein complexes in it. Together, they allow proteins to enter the matrix, which is contained within the inner membrane.

The outer membrane is also associated with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Sometimes, lipids need to enter the mitochondrion. These come from the ER.

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