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3rd-5th Grade Math: Practice & Review37 chapters | 252 lessons

Instructor:
*Francine White*

Francine has taught elementary school and is currently an elementary Math specialist. She has two Master's degrees: Curriculum and Instruction in Math K-14 and Educational Leadership

In this lesson, you will review what multiplication is and learn two methods for multiplying a two-digit number by a one-digit number: the area model and the traditional method. You can use both to practice your multiplication skills!

Multiplication is a quicker way of adding the same number multiple times. Since we are repeating the same number, multiplication is also called repeated addition. For example, say you have 7 friends with 13 gummy bears each and you want to find how many they have in total. Instead of adding 13 + 13 + 13 + 13 + 13 + 13 + 13, it's much faster to multiply 7 x 13 to find the answer. When we multiply two or more numbers, the answer is called the **product**.

In this lesson, we will talk about two ways that you can multiply a two-digit number by a one-digit number to find the product: the traditional method and the area method.

The **traditional multiplication** method is the way most people multiply numbers. This method involves writing the numbers vertically and lining them up by place value (the ones should be in the same column, the tens should be in the same column, and so on). Let's use traditional multiplication to find the answer to our gummy bear problem.

Start by writing the problem vertically:

Now, multiply the digits in the ones column. So, we will multiply 3 ones by 7 ones. Since this equals 21 ones, the 1 goes in the ones column and the 2 is carried over--place it above the tens column to be added later (just like carrying over when adding!):

Next, multiply 1 x 7 to get a product of 7. Don't forget to add the carried-over 2 to get a sum of 9. Write the 9 in the answer section beside the 1:

You've just found your product: 91.

It you're having trouble with the traditional method, there's a different way of finding the product of a two-digit number and a one-digit number. The **area model** uses boxes to help us visualize each step of the problem and see how the numbers contribute to the product. (It's also called the box method!)

Begin by drawing the area model box. Since our largest number is two digits, we will need to divide it into two columns. Divide it into a tens section (which should be larger to fit the larger product) and a ones section. Since the other number in the problem is one digit, we only need one row.

Next, we break up the two-digit number into tens and ones. For instance, the number 24 would be 20 + 4. The number 17 would be 10 +7. Get the picture?

For this example, let's use our gummy bear problem again: 13 x 7. The two-digit number is separated and written across the top. The one-digit number is written along the side:

We then multiply the tens and ones of the two-digit number by the one-digit number. When we use the area model, it doesn't matter whether we start with the tens or ones first.

To get our final answer, we add the two products: 70 + 21 = 91. So that means that 13 x 7 = 91. This is the same answer we got using the traditional method!

There are two main methods of multiplication for finding the product, or answer, of a two-digit number and a one-digit number. The traditional multiplication method involves arranging the numbers vertically and solving column-by-column. The area model involves using boxes to multiply parts of the numbers.

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9 in chapter 7 of the course:

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3rd-5th Grade Math: Practice & Review37 chapters | 252 lessons

- Go to Addition

- Go to Subtraction

- How to Perform Multiplication: Steps & Examples 5:22
- How to Multiply One-Digit Numbers
- Using Mental Math for Multiplication 4:44
- Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Commutative Property
- Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Rectangular Array 4:02
- Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Skip Counting
- Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Doubling
- Learning Multiplication Facts to 10 Using Finger Tricks
- Multiplying a Two-Digit Number by a One-Digit Number
- How to Multiply Numbers Ending in Zeroes 2:56
- How to Complete the Multiplication Sentence
- Finding the Missing Factor 3:17
- Working with Multiplication Input-Output Tables
- The Relationship Between Multiplication & Division
- Go to Multiplication

- Go to Division

- Go to Angles

- Go to Money

- Go to Time

- Go to Integers

- Go to Percents

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