Ocean Biome Facts: Lesson for Kids

Instructor: Rebecca Gillaspy

Dr. Gillaspy has taught health science at University of Phoenix and Ashford University and has a degree from Palmer College of Chiropractic.

The ocean biome is made up of the five oceans of the world. Learn facts about the ocean biome as well as the plants and sea creatures that live in the different zones of the biome.

What is a Biome?

A biome is a natural community made up of plants and animals that can survive in a certain environment. Biomes occur in different places because there are different living conditions in different parts of the Earth. For example, things living in a desert biome would have to tolerate the heat of the desert climate, whereas plants and creatures living in an ocean biome would need to love the saltwater environment of the ocean.


Water covers over 70% of the Earth's surface. The watery environments are split into two distinct biomes. Freshwater biomes, which are not salty, include lakes and rivers, while the saltwater ocean biome is made up of the five major oceans, as well as smaller inlets.

Oceans cover most of Earth making the ocean biome the biggest biome

The world's oceans include the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which border the United States on the east and west. The Arctic Ocean is found at the top of the globe, near the Arctic Circle, and the Southern Ocean is found at the bottom of the globe, near Antarctica. The Indian Ocean is located below Asia, near the country of India.

The ocean biome is the largest biome on Earth. It's home to many different sea creatures, from tiny plankton to huge whales, but where these creatures are found has a lot to do with the different zones of the ocean biome.

Zones of the Ocean Biome

An ocean biome is divided into vertical zones that run from the water surface down to the lowest point of the ocean known as the Mariana Trench, which is almost seven miles deep. That's deeper than Mt. Everest is high! The different zones are based on how much sunlight they receive.

The Sunlit Zone

The zone closest to the ocean's surface is called the sunlit zone or euphotic zone. This top layer of ocean receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis to take place. That means plants can grow here and become food for sea creatures.


Because of these pleasant living conditions, we see that 90% of the sea life lives in the sunlit zone, including plankton, dolphins, whales and many fish.

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