Organizational justice concerns how employees view fairness in places of employment. The three types of justice are distributive, procedural, and interactional.
Have you ever been part of a work situation where you thought you were treated unfairly? If so, did it have an impact on your work or morale? Employees want to work for fair and ethical companies and be treated with respect. Organizational justice concerns employees' perceptions of fairness within a company. Distributive, procedural, and interactional are the three types of organizational justice that companies must embrace in order to have happy and productive employees. Let's take a look at the Cheap Plastic Toys Company to see how organizational justice is relevant to organizational behavior.
Distributive justice deals with the employees' concerns of the fairness of outcomes they receive. One of the biggest reasons for issues with employee productivity or morale is when employees feel that their company lacks fairness. For example, Sarah has worked at Cheap Plastic Toys for over a year. She has just found out that she will be receiving only a 1% raise this year. She does not feel that this is a fair outcome. Organizations can provide equal distributive justice by educating, communicating, and enacting fair employment practices with the organization.
Another type of organizational justice is called procedural. Procedural justice is concerned with how employees view the fairness of the process of how outcomes are decided. Thomas has issues with how Cheap Plastic Toys provides overtime to their employees. He feels that they lack procedural justice because they do not provide enough advance notice for the scheduling of shifts. The company can easily rectify this issue by responding to Thomas' feedback and improving their overtime scheduling notice.
Let's look at the third type of organizational justice. Our first example mentioned how unhappy Sarah was with the 1% raise she was receiving this year. There was also a lack of interactional justice in Sarah's case. Interactional justice deals with how explanations are communicated as well as the fair treatment of or sensitivity towards employees. Interpersonal and informational are the two types of interactional justice. Interpersonal justice looks at sensitivity and fairness in how information is communicated to an employee. Informational justice relates to the quality of the explanation that is given to employees explaining why a specific outcome happened.
Sarah needed informational justice to fully understand why she was only given a miniscule raise when others received much more. Cheap Plastic Toys had to fully communicate with Sarah that her department was up for a major layoff and the only way to prevent this from occurring was to lower raises company-wide for employees with less than three years' experience. This should be communicated to Sarah in a way that will not upset or offend her (which is interpersonal justice). If not communicated appropriately, this could lead to her quitting her job or having a decrease in productivity.
Results of Justice
When companies adapt organizational justice within their organization, they are communicating appropriately to employees. They are considering employees' feelings and providing fair treatment. Employees will then want to participate, work, and communicate within the company. The end result is increased morale, productivity, and sales.
Employees want to be treated fairly by their place of employment. Organizational justice concerns employees' understanding of fairness, results, and processes within a company. Distributive, procedural, and interactional are the three types of organizational justice that companies must embrace in order to have happy and productive employees. If a company provides organizational justice, it will lead to happy employees who will be able to work effectively within the organization.
After viewing this lesson, students should be able to meet these goals:
- Explain the three types of organizational justice: distributive, procedural and interactional
- Compare interpersonal and informational justice
- Recall the probable effects of justice on organizational behavior within a company