Pancreas: Structure & Function

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  • 0:01 Your Pancreas
  • 2:09 Insulin
  • 3:24 Glucagon
  • 4:20 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Rebecca Gillaspy

Dr. Gillaspy has taught health science at University of Phoenix and Ashford University and has a degree from Palmer College of Chiropractic.

Your pancreas is an organ that is tucked in behind your stomach. It helps out with digestion, but in this lesson you will learn about the two hormones it produces named insulin and glucagon and how they keep your blood sugar level balanced.

Your Pancreas

Deep inside your body is a 6-inch-long, triangle-shaped pancake that helps to keep your blood sugar under control. Wait. . . that can't be right. Oops, sorry about that. Let me start over. Deep inside your body is a 6-inch-long, triangle-shaped organ that is flat, like a pancake. It's called your pancreas, and it secretes hormones that help to balance blood sugar levels. Okay, that's more like it.

This organ is squeezed into a little area right behind your stomach. If you put your hand over your belly, just below your ribs, then you have an idea of where your pancreas is located. Your pancreas is nestled in around your stomach and intestines because it plays an important role in digesting your food, but that's a story for another day, because in this lesson, we will talk about its function in the endocrine system - you know, the system that sends out chemical messengers, called hormones, that keep your body in balance and tell it when to do things, like grow and develop.

When we are talking about hormones that come out of the pancreas, we are talking about two really important ones, insulin and glucagon. It's interesting that these hormones come from the same parent organ, meaning the pancreas, because they are complete opposites. It would be like having a brother or sister who does everything different than you. If you turn the volume down on the TV, your sibling turns the volume up. It's enough to drive you crazy. Well, that's the same relationship we see with insulin and glucagon because one makes the amount of sugar in your blood go down, while the other makes it go up. Even though it seems like they are always fighting with each other, in the end, their constant adjustments work out, which allows you to maintain your blood sugar at a healthy level.


Now, you might be wondering why it's so important to keep your blood sugar level steady. That's a good question. You see, sugar, which is also called glucose, is the fuel your body cells like to use for energy.

If you have too little sugar in your blood, then there is not enough to feed your cells, leaving you feeling shaky and moody and really tired. You might have felt this way after a day of not eating anything. If you eat a lot of food, like a double stack of pancakes with maple syrup, then you are going to flood your blood with sugar and probably not feel too good until that extra sugar gets moved out of your blood. To do this, your body calls on your pancreas to make insulin. Insulin is the hormone that lowers blood sugar levels. It does this by moving extra sugar out of your blood and putting it into your body cells. So, it's insulin's job to open up the door of your cells and let sugar in. It's almost as if insulin knows the 'secret knock' that opens the door of your cells. Without insulin's 'secret knock,' sugar can't get in.

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