Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition: Definition & Guidelines

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
 Replay
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:04 Peripheral Parenteral…
  • 0:48 PPN: Need
  • 1:32 PPN: Solution
  • 2:49 PPN: Administration
  • 4:11 PPN: Complications
  • 5:40 Lesson Summary
Save Save Save

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Log in or Sign up

Timeline
Autoplay
Autoplay
Speed Speed

Recommended Lessons and Courses for You

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Scott Keane

Scott has a Bachelor's degree in Nursing, a Master's degree in Christian Studies, and has taught college level nursing.

Discover how patients receive nutritional fuel when they cannot eat properly. This lesson describes how to safely deliver liquid nutrition into veins.

Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition

If you own a car, you need gasoline to keep it running. In much the same way, your body needs nutrients that provide you with the energy required to go about your daily activities. If you cannot ingest these nutrients or your intestines are not working properly, you must fulfill your nutritional requirements through other means. Parenteral nutrition can be infused directly into your veins in a sterile, liquid form. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is administered through the largest vein in your body, the superior vena cava, and provides the majority of your nutritional needs. Peripheral parental nutrition (PPN) is administered through the veins outside the superior vena cava. Let's find out more about PPN.

PPN: Need

If you become ill and cannot eat, sometimes for as long as 4-7 days, you'll most likely become dehydrated and lose a lot of weight, in addition to other possible health problems. The most common reasons for severe weight loss requiring replacement nutrition include abscesses, bowel inflammation, cancer, complicated intestinal surgeries, fistulas, highly draining wounds, intractable diarrhea, and malabsorption syndromes. If you're expected to regain the ability to eat in a relatively short period of time, you can have your nutritional protein, carbohydrates, and fat supplied through your peripheral veins. This can help to maintain brain and organ function and aid in your recovery.

PPN: Solution

Your body uses three main nutritional sources: carbohydrates for energy, fats for energy and storage, and proteins for structure. Intravenous nutritional solutions provide these elements in the form of amino acids (protein), dextrose (carbohydrate), and emulsified lipids (fat). The amino acids and dextrose in this solution can be very irritating to your veins. To help prevent vessel damage, the concentration of these elements is limited. For example, D10W, or 10% dextrose in water, is the highest concentration of sugar used in peripheral parenteral nutrition. It's twice as concentrated as your average blood sugar.

Protein and fat concentrations are also limited. The maximum amino acid concentration is a 5% solution. Acceptable lipid concentrations are no higher than 20% peripherally. Lipid emulsifications are also much less irritating than a dextrose-amino acid solution. Lipids may be given in a separate bottle or mixed with a dextrose-amino acid solution. The mixed solution is less irritating to vein walls. To provide the remaining nutritional requirements, electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins are added to the solution.

PPN: Administration

Any infusing parenteral nutritional solution can cause serious harm, but there are a few ways to decrease the chance of damage. One approach is to use the peripheral veins with the largest diameters, which allows the solution to be diluted in the maximum blood flow. These veins are the basilic, cephalic, and median arm veins. The solution flows out of the intravenous catheter tip, which is placed in the veins with the greatest blood flow. An IV catheter pump allows the solution to flow at a consistent, safe rate. Since the peripheral solution is less concentrated than the central line solution given in the superior vena cava, pump rates may be fairly rapid. This also allows more fluid to be infused peripherally to provide more nutrients. A filter in this venous catheter tubing prevents any large particles from infusing.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about Study.com
Try it risk-free for 30 days

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it risk-free for 30 days!
Create an account
Support