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Peru Facts: Lesson for Kids

Instructor: Jennifer Lowery

Jennifer has taught elementary levels K-3 and has master's degrees in elementary education and curriculum/instruction and educational leadership.

Peru is a country located in the western part of South America. In this lesson, learn about the nation's history and explore the climate and wildlife of the the three geographic regions that make up Peru.

South of the Equator

Let's travel south of that imaginary line through the middle of the Earth called the Equator and head to the country of Peru!

Peru is located on the western coast of South America and is divided into 25 regions. People who are citizens of the country are called 'Peruvians.' The largest and capital city is named Lima.

Peru is located in South America just below the equator.
Map of Peru

History of Peru

Long ago, Peru was ruled by an ancient group of people called the Inca. The Inca established an empire in Peru that grew very quickly and lasted for hundreds of years.

In the mid-1500s, the Spanish defeated the Incas. They ruled until Peru achieved independence in 1824. Since then, there has been a lot of unrest in the Peruvian government.

Geography and Climate

There are three different kinds of land that make up Peru's geography. The Andes Mountains create the Sierra region in the west. These mountains were created by tectonic activity, which is when sections of the Earth's crusts (called plates) move. In the Sierra region, Machu Picchu can be found. Machu Picchu is an ancient city of the Incas and an amazing site that many tourists visit each year.

The ancient ruins of the Incas can be found at Machu Picchu in the Andes Mountains.
Machu Picchu

The coastal section of Peru is called the Costa and it stretches for many miles along the western side of the country. Some of the Andes Mountains are also in the Costa region. To the east is the Amazonia region, referring to the Amazon rainforest. It is very tropical and full of thick forests.

No matter what kind of weather you like, Peru has something for you! The coastal areas are extremely dry and almost like deserts. If that's not your preference, you can travel to the mountain area. This region experiences a rainy season and the temperatures get cooler as the elevation increases. Some of the highest areas have snow year-round! If you like hot and humid weather, the Amazonia area is the spot for you. This tropical area stays warm and wet throughout the year.

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