Piet Mondrian: Biography, Paintings & Art

Instructor: Ivy Roberts

Ivy Roberts has taught undergraduate-level film studies for over 9 years. She has a PhD in Media, Art and Text from Virginia Commonwealth University and a BA in film production from Marlboro College. She also has a certificate in teaching online from UMGC and non-profit marketing and fundraising from UC Davis.

Explore the art, style, and influence of Dutch painter Piet Mondrian. Learn about his approach to Abstract Art and Cubism, connections with other Modern artists, and impact on minimalist art and architecture. Updated: 03/07/2022

Going Dutch

Don't let the mustache fool you. Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) was a cultural esthete and avant-garde intellectual. Mondrian (born Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan) was a Dutch painter who gained fame in the art world through participation in the art group De Stijl and his innovative Neo-Plastic style.

Photograph of Piet Mondrian (1922)

Artistic Beginnings

Mondrian was born and raised in the Netherlands to a family in which education and art were important. His earlier work was influenced by impressionism, a contemporary movement that valued naturalism and the reflection of emotional characteristics of the landscape. Mondrian's work was also influenced by his interest in spiritualism and philosophy, most notably the popular late nineteenth century movements of Theosophy and Anthrosophy.


By the 1930s, Mondrian had adopted an artistic style situated firmly in abstraction. Abstraction is a movement as well as a style of art that encompasses many different styles of art that first became popular in the early twentieth century. This movement was a reflection on the social and cultural upheavals entangled with the circumstances of the turn of the century and the first World War. The style grew out of artists overwhelmed by existential crisis, subjectivity, and the artificiality of mechanical reproduction (in photography and mass industrial production, for example).

Abstraction then gave birth to Abstract Expressionism, which takes an approach called non-representation, which rejects the idea that paintings can or even should attempt to reflect the lived, visible world. Instead, non-representational art excels at expressing the inner feeling, desire, and mood of an artist reflected through composition.

In Cubism, non-representational style makes use of geometric form. Cubism was an art movement within the broader trend of abstraction in the early twentieth century, alongside contemporary movements in Vorticism, Conceptual, and Dadaist art such as Duchamp's Readymades. Cubism was characterized by many of the same qualities as Expressionism, with particular emphasis on geometrical forms and lines to create asymmetrical compositions.

Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow (1930)
mondrian Cubism

While the titles of Mondrian's paintings sometimes referred to concrete objects, such as trees and landscapes, the paintings themselves were constructed from abstract geometric forms and primary colors. As an experiment in Cubism, Mondrian produced a series of paintings around the graphic composition of the tree. The series began with the depiction of a recognizable tree and degraded across compositions into an entirely cubist composition composed entirely of lines and geometric forms.

As the paintings in the series became more abstract, the viewer notices the correspondence as the compositions refer back to the first, representational tree. In a sense, the series was an experiment to see how minimal the composition could become while still retaining meaning and correspondence to a representational object. Compare Gray Tree (1911) with Composition No. XVI (1912/13). This type of probing into minimalism is characteristic of much of the work that came after, particularly its engagement with non-representation and abstract form.

Gray Tree (1911)

Composition No. XVI (1912/13)
mondrian tree

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