Pluralistic Ignorance: Definition & Examples

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  • 0:01 Defining Pluralistic Ignorance
  • 2:28 Examples of…
  • 4:05 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Yolanda Williams

Yolanda has taught college Psychology and Ethics, and has a doctorate of philosophy in counselor education and supervision.

Pluralistic ignorance refers to the social phenomenon in which individuals guess wrongly about a group's beliefs and values. Learn more about pluralistic ignorance through examples and then test your knowledge with a quiz in this lesson.

Defining Pluralistic Ignorance

Suppose that you were at a movie theatre with a group of friends. Maggie, one of your friends, drops her bucket of popcorn on the floor and leaves it there. She also throws all her candy wrappers on the floor, not caring that she is making a mess. You are a firm believer in recycling and cleaning up your own messes, and you detest people who go out of their way to create messes for other people to clean up just because they can.

You want to say something to Maggie about her behavior. You look around and notice that none of your friends are concerned with Maggie's uncleanliness. In fact, no one has so much as glanced at the floor to look at the mess she made. It's as if they're all comfortable with Maggie's behavior. Afraid of being made fun of by your friends for speaking up, you decide not to say anything. What you don't know is that most of your friends agree with you and were just afraid to be the first one to speak up. This is an example of pluralistic ignorance.

So, what exactly is pluralistic ignorance? It's a term that was created by Floyd H. Allport and Daniel Katz in the 1930s, describing a situation where individual members of a group have a value or belief that differs from what they believe the values or beliefs of the rest of the group to be. This misconception of others' values causes the group members to act in ways that differ from what they believe in. Pluralistic ignorance is a systematic error in our estimation of the beliefs of other people. We guess at the group members' beliefs and norms based upon our observations, and our guess is wrong.

When you looked around at your friends, you saw that they were not speaking and avoiding looking at the floor. You did not consider that they were behaving this way because Maggie's unclean behavior made them so disgusted that they couldn't even look at the floor. You interpreted it as them accepting and agreeing with Maggie's behavior, when it was the exact opposite.

In this example, you and the rest of your friends disagreed with Maggie's behavior. However, none of you spoke up because you all thought that the rest of the group was okay with it. The fact was that none of you agreed with Maggie's behavior. Had just one person spoken up, the pluralistic ignorance would have been resolved.

Examples of Pluralistic Ignorance

Pluralistic ignorance can easily be conquered if just one person speaks up about their values or norms. Yet, in these situations, people choose to sacrifice their norms for the sake of agreeing with the group. So, why don't we speak up in these situations? Reasons include:

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