Nontheism: Hinduism, Buddhism & Confucianism

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  • 0:07 Nontheism
  • 1:04 Hinduism
  • 3:30 Buddhism
  • 5:30 Confucianism
  • 7:23 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Erin Long-Crowell

Erin has an M.Ed in adult education and a BS in psychology and a BS in management systems.

Not all religions focus on the belief (or disbelief) in a particular deity. In this lesson, we define nontheism and discuss the ideologies of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.


When you hear the word 'religion,' is there a specific one that comes to mind? It's common to think of religions, like Christianity, whose belief centers around one God. In other lessons, we've discussed the concept of religion and even talked about monotheistic religions, like Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. However, not all religions are monotheistic or even polytheistic. Some are actually nontheistic.

Nontheism, in this lesson, refers to nontheistic religions, which are religions that do not focus on belief in god(s). Some nontheistic religions could also be called 'ethical religions' because they revolve around ethics instead of a god. In this lesson, we discuss three nontheistic or ethical religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.


Hinduism is the oldest of all the practiced world religions, originating about 4,500 years ago! Today, it is the third largest religion after Christianity and Islam. The majority of Hindus reside in India, and Hinduism is at times hard to separate from Indian culture. However, Hinduism continues to gain popularity in the West.

The majority of Hindus believe in multiple gods and so are polytheistic. However, some Hindus are atheist and do not believe any gods exist. Still others are monotheistic but typically envision God as a universal moral force rather than a specific entity. So, Hinduism is certainly a nontheistic religion because it doesn't revolve around any particular deity. The core, instead, is ethics. All Hindus subscribe to a system of ethics and moral responsibilities, which they call Dharma. It promotes an open-minded, respectful, and peaceful existence.

Another Hindu principle that most people are familiar with is Karma, which is a system of reward and punishment for actions and intentions. Good actions and intentions reap good rewards, and bad actions and intentions reap negative consequences. Karma works through reincarnation, a cycle of life, death, and rebirth by which a person is reborn into a state corresponding to the moral quality of a previous life. A person that is just and moral in one life could be reincarnated as a rich and powerful person. Someone that is not moral could be punished in the next life by returning as a lower being. The ultimate goal of all Hindus is release from this cycle of rebirth. They believe a being has to live many lives before this is possible. For those who finally reach Moksha, the state of spiritual perfection, the soul will no longer be reborn and will become one with the universe.

Hindus have multiple sacred texts, the oldest and most sacred of which are the Vedas. The Vedas consist of four compositions that contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. They are considered to be the original knowledge of humankind.


After Hinduism, the fourth largest world religion is Buddhism. Almost all Buddhists live in Asia, but there are a significant number of followers in the U.S. Buddhism has much in common with Hinduism; it is concerned primarily with ethics and morals, sees each daily action as having spiritual consequences, and believes in reincarnation.

Since its creation, Buddhism has evolved into a wide variety of forms. Although the majority of Buddhists are atheist, some believe in one God and others believe in multiple gods. Like Hindus, Buddhist beliefs in the existence of deities and emphasis on religious rituals vary. However, all Buddhists focus on and share ethical and moral beliefs, as well as a great respect for the teachings of the Buddha, or 'The Enlightened One.'

Siddhartha Guatama was an Indian prince who, after witnessing the suffering of others, became enlightened through much learning and meditation. According to his teachings, the purpose of life is to end suffering and develop compassion for all living things without discrimination. The Buddha taught that we must use meditation to move beyond selfish concerns and desires. Only by quieting the mind can people connect with the power of the larger universe and reach a state of enlightenment and peace. Today, anyone that achieves a state of perfect spiritual enlightenment in accordance with the Buddha's teachings can achieve the title of a Buddha.

Buddhists have many sacred texts that are thought of as guides on the path to truth and enlightenment. The majority of these texts have been compiled into the Tripitaka. Part of the Tripitaka, the Sutras, are believed to be the actual words of the Buddha. However, not all Buddhists believe they should be used.


The last nontheistic religion we'll discuss in this lesson is Confucianism. For about 2,000 years, Confucianism was the official religion of China. Today, it is still extremely common in China and some 100,000 followers or so live in North America.

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