Practice Analyzing and Interpreting a Reference Book

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Practice Analyzing and Interpreting a Review

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:01 Reference Books
  • 2:03 Encyclopedias
  • 2:59 Dictionaries
  • 3:34 Almanac
  • 4:22 Atlases
  • 5:12 Lesson Summary
Add to Add to Add to

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Login or Sign up

Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account
Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Kara Wilson

Kara Wilson is a 6th-12th grade English and Drama teacher. She has a B.A. in Literature and an M.Ed, both of which she earned from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Before the Internet existed, people used reference books to find answers to many of their questions. Reference books are still widely used, especially when doing research. Learn how to analyze and interpret them in this lesson.

Reference Books

If you've ever wanted to know the population of a city or country, get a brief overview of a political leader, or learn how climate change has affected a particular region, you could've used a reference book to find out. I know many of us tend to ask our smart phones or Google an answer, but if the Internet wasn't working or if you had to use actual books to find the answer in a class, you would have to pull out one of these big books. Reference books are actually really user friendly. You just have to understand how they are organized.

They aren't meant to be read cover to cover like a novel. Instead, you can flip through them, find what you need, apply that to what you're studying or analyze the information to understand concepts even better.

To be more specific, a reference book is a book consulted for specific matters. It contains useful or specially organized information. Examples include an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an almanac, and an atlas.

Material in a reference book is typically organized in alphabetical order so that topics can be located quickly. An index is usually provided to serve as a guide to the thousands of topics found in that book, or to locate the smaller subtopics of the larger subjects.

Reference books also have a cross reference to help readers out. A cross reference guides the readers from the subject entry that is not used to one that is or to where related information is located. In an index for an encyclopedia, it often says 'See also…' For example, in the index of a book about Nobel Laureates it might say, 'See also Mandela, Nelson'. Or within the text, it might say 'Allies: See Allied Powers'.

Also, at the end of articles in reference books a bibliography is usually provided. This can help you find more sources, which is great when doing research papers.

Let's now take a closer look at the different types of reference books.


An encyclopedia can provide a general overview on a subject, or you can consult a more specific type of encyclopedia that has more detailed information on one specific topic. A more general encyclopedia would be the World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places, while the Encyclopedia of American Crime or the Astronomy Encyclopedia would be more specific examples.

It's important to know:

  • Articles in encyclopedias are typically arranged in alphabetical order and are signed by the authors.
  • You want to use the subject index first because it shows which volume to look in and on what pages you can find a particular subject.
  • While it's great to be able to use the Internet to do research, there are tons of websites that provide false information or don't cite their sources, so it's hard to know if it's reliable. Encyclopedias are trusted reference books that can really help jumpstart research.


A dictionary is a reference book that provides the definition of words and what part of speech they are through an abbreviation such as 'n.' for 'noun' or 'adj.' for 'adjective'. It also typically gives the origin of words and the way they are pronounced by using phonics.

There are monolingual dictionaries (meaning they list the words and their meanings in the same language) bilingual dictionaries (such as an English-Spanish dictionary, to help language learners translate words), and even multilingual dictionaries, which translate words and their meanings into two or more languages.


An almanac is an annual reference book of useful and interesting facts and statistics that relate to countries, sports, entertainment, etc. There are a variety of almanacs, such as the World Almanac, the Almanac of American Politics, and the Weather Almanac.

Looking at this sample page from the World Almanac, we can see that it's providing information on how many people practice specific religions, and it's an overview of six continents' populations:

Sample page from the World Almanac
sample almanac page

When analyzing data like this we want to:

  • Pay attention to the numbers listed to compare them to other continents or other time periods
  • Notice the words in bold, which help organize information and highlight important words or phrases
  • Read any subheadings, such as the note that all numbers are rounded

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Register for a free trial

Are you a student or a teacher?
I am a teacher

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account