What is Relief Carving?
Sculptors are artists who create three-dimensional objects. They can work in many methods, including using clay to model sculptures, as well as processes to cast large figures in bronze. Some sculptors carve materials like stone or wood. Those who carve works might make relief carvings.
A relief carving is a sculpture with figures that protrude from a background while still being attached to it. Relief carvings create an illusion of space and depth on a shallow surface. It's a very old way of making art, and examples of relief carvings date back to ancient Greece and Rome. Relief carvings are categorized according to their depth. A low relief, sometimes also called bas relief, has figures that project only slightly from the surface. On the other hand, a high relief has figures that stand out prominently from the surface with a greater sense of depth.
Now that you know what a relief carving is, let's explore how they're made. We can't discuss the whole process in detail, but we can cover some of the most important tools and steps.
Sculptors make relief carvings from many materials, including stone, ivory, and wood. We're going to focus on relief carving using wood. So, the first basic requirement is a solid, thick plank of wood. Hardwoods like basswood, oak, or walnut are good choices.
The next step is assembling the right tools. Wood is carved with sharp knives made specifically for that purpose. There are two primary kinds. Chisels have a flat blade that might be straight or angled. They're used to cut lines into a surface. Gouges have a curved concave blade, and are used to scoop out wider shallow areas or remove material from a surface. Some blades are specialized, like corner chisels, which have a V-shaped blade and are used to shape corners. Some chisels and blades are small and used for detail work done by hand, while others are large and meant to be hit with a mallet. Whatever their size, it's a good idea to use quality blades made of strong material like carbon steel. It's also important to make sure the blades are very sharp to ensure precise, accurate cuts.
To begin a relief carving, use a pencil to trace your design onto the wood. At this point, it's helpful to think about your scene in reverse. The areas furthest away from you (i.e., the background) will be the deepest in the carving, and they're where you have to start. To begin the actual carving process, define your pattern outlines with stop cuts—V-shaped incisions made with two chisel strokes that create clean, clear lines to follow in your design. Then, use a gouge to carefully remove excess wood and establish the deepest part of the background.
After this has been established, rough out the rest of the forms, scraping around edges and borders to gradually create the shapes in the relief. Work on general forms first and then toward more specific details. Sometimes a rasp might be used to smooth out or round edges. The last step is to add the smallest details and most intricate features.
Relief carving uses only a few tools and can be done in a small space. Now that you know the basics, why don't you try to make an artwork of your own?
A relief carving is a sculpture with figures that protrude from a background, but are still attached to it. It's a very old art form that has been done for centuries. Low reliefs, sometimes called bas reliefs, are relatively flat and don't stick out far from the surface. High reliefs are much more defined and create an illusion of deeper depth.
To make a relief carved in wood, you need a thick plank of wood and special carving knives. Chisels are flat blades that might be straight or angled, and gouges are curved blades that are used to scoop out surfaces. A design is traced onto the wood, and then stop cuts (V-shaped incisions) are made to define the basic forms in the pattern. The background depth is then established with gouges. You work on general shapes first and then add more specific details as the carving nears completion.