Research-Based Reading Strategies for Teachers

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  • 0:04 Components of Reading…
  • 0:22 Sounding It Out
  • 1:21 Understanding Text
  • 2:21 Producing Text
  • 3:04 Continuous Improvement
  • 3:33 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Kerry Gray

Kerry has been a teacher and an administrator for more than twenty years. She has a Master of Education degree.

Learning to read is a complex process that balances multiple components, including: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, writing, spelling, assessment, and engagement.

Components of Reading Instruction

What does research tell us about the quickest, easiest way to teach students to read? Over years of reading research, what we have learned is that the process of learning to read involves the synthesis of several different elements. In this lesson, we will learn more about the nine components of effective reading instruction.

Sounding It Out

The first components of learning to read that we will discuss relate to bringing meaning to the words on the page through both phonemic awareness and phonics. What is the difference between these two concepts?

Phonemic awareness relates to the understanding of the individual sounds that come together to create words. Phonemic awareness is not related to the alphabetic symbols, but rather the ability to hear, segment, blend, and manipulate sounds in oral language. For example, in the word 'cat,' students can hear three distinct phonemes. /c/-/a/-/t/

Phonics relates to the associations between phonemes and the letters that represent them. Using phonetic principles, students must be able to decode words and name them before they can connect words to meaning. For example, if students know that the letter 'c' makes the /c/, 'a' makes the /a/, and 't' makes the /t/, they are able to put these three letters together to decode the word 'cat.'

Understanding Text

However, understanding sounds and letters is not enough to make students good readers. Students must also be able to understand the words, phrases, and sentences they have deciphered. Fluency relates to the automaticity of reading. When students spend too much time decoding individual words or if a student reads too slowly, their poor fluency interferes with the ability to understand what they have read.

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