Devin has taught psychology and has a master's degree in clinical forensic psychology. He is working on his PhD.
Risk Means Possible
Psychological experiments come with a certain level of risk. Even in the best of circumstances and with the best intentions, something might happen to someone. We will look at some simple experiments and how they might cause physical, psychological, legal and other harm, as well as some possible ways to stop the harm.
While it seems very strange that a person might have physical harm done to them during the course of a psychological experiment, it is not as implausible as you might think. We will define physical harm as pain, injury, illness or impairment caused by another.
Starting off with a simple experiment, let's say you are a researcher and are curious as to the effects of exercise on a person's mood. You assign a light, medium and intense workout regime to your subjects. If you do not have a medical doctor to consult with and you had a person with a heart or blood pressure issue assigned to an intense workout, then the resulting damage to their body is squarely on your shoulders.
One way to avoid physically harming your participants is to take an extensive history and provide highly detailed information about the experiment. The history might help you select individuals who may have preexisting conditions and remove them from the study. Presenting highly detailed information about the experiment prior to conducting it will help an individual decide whether he or she wants to join. If you are running an experiment with physical exertion or risk to the human body, it would be wise to include additional information so that people aware of their conditions can opt out of the experiment.
Psychological harm could be defined as emotional or cognitive disturbances resulting from another's actions. Psychological studies often probe into the dark places of the human mind, asking things that wouldn't make polite conversation topics. Normal people don't ask about another's sexual abuse history and other painful experiences, but psychologists do. And, in the quest to understand, it is not difficult for a researcher to overreach and push too hard to get an answer.
There are other ways to cause harm. For example, let's say you as a researcher are curious as to the effects of exposing people to loud noise and bright lights when taking a test. Your goal is to frighten them and see how much it impairs their test taking ability. Most healthy participants will be able to handle this, and when later informed of why this was done and given some time to calm their nerves, they will be fine. However, the harm comes into play with the portion of the population that might suffer from continued fear and anxiety following the study.
A way to avoid psychological harm is by having a researcher debrief the participants to ensure they do not suffer from continued psychological harm. Debriefing means a researcher provides prompt opportunity for participants to obtain information about the nature, results and conclusion of the study, as well as taking reasonable steps to correct misconceptions. This allows participants who might be suffering after the experiment a chance to return back to normal or at least get directed to a person who can help them.
A growing area of concern is the interaction of psychology with the legal system. Many researchers can find themselves in ethical and legal quandaries when presented with a subpoena, which is a legal document requesting you to appear in court. While a subpoena is not likely for most experiments, if you are looking into things like sexual abuse, drug use or criminal activity, then you may cause the participants legal harm. Legal harm can be defined as causing an interaction between the participant and the court system.
Let's say you're interested in the criminal behavior of the homeless. To collect data, you would be asking people to admit to doing crimes that they have not been charged with. The best way to avoid getting these people in trouble is by not performing the study. Sometimes, what can be learned is not worth the harm that may result.
There are many other ways a psychological experiment can harm people. For instance, what if you put out a large number of research fliers to find participants who are suffering from HIV? The mere association with your study and the public way in which you requested participants might harm the individual's right to privacy.
Let's take that simple example a little further. A researcher puts out a request for those suffering from HIV to show up at Dr. Smith's office in downtown. By showing up, there is a distinct possibility that someone will see a coworker or friend at the doctor's office. Now the news is out, and the news would spread through their coworkers and personal life. This could begin to negatively affect everything, including their job, their home and other aspects of their life.
How does a researcher protect someone from harm that could come from being associated with your research study? A researcher can be careful with how they select their participants and not sending out blanket fliers with a place to show up. Instead, a researcher could use alternate means of contact, such as by phone or snail mail.
There are many ways a researcher can harm a participant unintentionally. Physical harm, defined as pain, injury, illness or impairment caused by another, could be avoided by collecting adequate information and removing risky individuals. Additional information to participants might encourage those who know about their conditions to remove themselves.
Psychological harm could be defined as emotional or cognitive disturbances resulting from another's actions. To help subjects overcome this, debriefing provides a prompt opportunity for participants to obtain information about the nature, results and conclusions of the research, as well as taking reasonable steps to correct misconceptions.
Legal harm can be defined as causing an interaction between the participant and the court system, which can result in an experiment being dead in the water, so this is to be avoided. A researcher must evaluate ways to avoid harming the individuals involved in their study.
After you have finished with this lesson, you'll be able to:
- Provide examples of how a research participant can be harmed by a researcher
- Explain how collecting a thorough history of the participant can help avoid physical harm
- Describe how debriefing can help avoid psychological harm
- Summarize how a researcher can avoid causing legal harm to a participant and how a researcher can protect a participant's rights to privacy
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