Rules of Construction and Interpretation in Law

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Ashley Dugger

Ashley has a JD degree and is an attorney. She has extensive experience as a prosecutor and legal writer, and she has taught and written various law courses.

Courts use specific laws or policies to settle disputes over contracts known as Rules of Construction. Explore contract disputes through their principle purpose and construction while learning the implications of the court's interpretation and the parties' intent. Updated: 09/17/2021

Contract Disputes

There are times when the parties disagree on the terms of the contract, or on how the contract should be enforced. A breach of contract suit is a fairly common type of civil lawsuit. A breach of contract is a cause of action that will be brought when one party fails to complete a duty that is required by the contract.

Whenever a contract dispute ends up in court, the court's primary concern is to determine and to give effect to the intentions of the parties. The court will examine and interpret the contract according to certain rules of construction, so that the court can facilitate the wishes of the parties. Rules of construction are laws and policies that a court uses when resolving a dispute between the parties of a contract.

For example, let's say that you and I agree that I'll sell you my car. I say that I'll sell you my car for $100, and you accept. I deliver my 1984 Honda to you. You're angry, because you don't want this car. You thought I was selling my new, 2013 Cadillac. When you sue me for breach of contract, the court will follow certain guidelines, or rules of construction, in an attempt to determine what each of us intended.

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Implied Terms in a Contract: Definition & Explanation

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:06 Contract Disputes
  • 1:28 Principal Purpose
  • 2:27 Contract Construction
  • 3:35 Interpretation
  • 5:22 Parties' Intent
  • 8:17 Lesson Summary
Save Save Save

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Log in or Sign up

Speed Speed

Principal Purpose

When a court must step in and interpret a contract, the court will follow several rules of construction. Let's take a look at each of these rules. First, the court will attempt to determine the principal purpose of the parties in the making of the contract. The court will look at the contract itself, as well as the parties' words and conduct.

Let's take a look at the contract we made to sell my car. My principal purpose is to unload my old car, and hopefully make a little bit of money on it. Your principal purpose was to acquire reliable transportation for as little money as possible. The court will look at our contract to determine if our purposes were met. If not, then the court will determine what needs to be accomplished so that we can each meet our purpose. In our agreement, for the most part, our purposes are met even if you end up with the Honda.

Contract Construction

The court will also look at the construction of the contract. The contract will be interpreted as a whole. This means that if the parties disagree on the meaning of one portion of the contract, the court will look to the other portions of the contract for answers. If the contract is written, the court will examine the actual contract in its entirety.

Sometimes a contract is constructed of several different writings. When this is the case, the court will examine and interpret those writings together. The court will consider each part in relation to the rest of the contract. This is done so that the court can determine the effect of each part on the other parts.

Let's say that I wrote a letter to you, stating that I'll sell my car to you for $100. I then sent you a copy of the title to my car. The title clearly states that the car is a 1984 Honda. These two documents will be read together to show that I intended to sell you the Honda. This contract will be interpreted to show that we had a valid agreement regarding the Honda.


The court will interpret the language of the contract and assign meaning to the various terms. Generally, contract language is interpreted according to the most common and prevailing meaning. Courts sometimes call this the plain, ordinary, and generally accepted meaning.

According to the Texas case of Birnbaum v. Swepi, courts should use the plain meaning unless the contract shows that the parties used the term in a technical or different sense. This is the law in most states, because many contracts use technical terms, or terms of art. When a contract is specific to a specialized area, any technical terms will be interpreted according to that specialization.

The court will determine whether or not there are any ambiguities in the language of the contract. An ambiguity is a vague or uncertain term. Note that an ambiguity doesn't necessarily arise when the parties disagree on an interpretation. An ambiguity exists only when both interpretations are reasonable. When the court finds an ambiguity, the court will interpret the term against the party that drafted the contract.

Let's look at our contract again. I said that I'd sell you my car. Is car an ambiguity? I meant one car, and you thought I meant a different car. We disagree on the interpretation. The court will need to decide whether or not both interpretations are reasonable, considering the circumstances. It's likely that both interpretations are reasonable, but if I've specified the Honda by sending you the title, then you should reasonably know that I intend to sell you the Honda.

Parties' Intent

The court will also need to determine the parties' intent. The court will look at any demonstrations of a party's intent and interpret those actions in accordance to the terms of the contract.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Register to view this lesson

Are you a student or a teacher?

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back
What teachers are saying about
Try it now
Create an account to start this course today
Used by over 30 million students worldwide
Create an account